OBSERVATIONS CONSIDERING THE HABITAT OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE IN THE REGION OF LOWER DANUBE
IOHANA NICHITA, SIMONA LAZAR
Achieving a symbiosis between the climatic conditions, the specific of rural economy, intercommunity or distant changes, the necessity of creating some fortification systems and the existence of some power centers, some religious practices thus it is defined the character of the habitat of the discussed period.
The Neolithic settings can be found in different places but in most of the cases on rivers courses near springs with drinking water especially on lower or middle terraces. These dwellings offered drinking water and another important food source, fish, but also a great opportunity of communication that does not have to be neglected. In most of the cases the main occupations of the group and even of the individuals determined the selection of a certain dwelling where lived only one family or a small group.
Where the growth of animals (horned cattle) is possible, the Neolithic settings are also situated. The existence of prime materials, as the clș and the salt, are the main source of existence of the Neolithic settings. The height of territorial surface is a condition of Neolithic locations necessary to supervise the surroundings in case of danger.
Besides the conditions offered by the environment the location of Neolithic settings influenced by psychological factors bound to family and community. Depending on the above mentioned conditions, there can be structured the categories of region in which they identified the settings: in river meadow, but in zones with no floods, on the edges of terraces, on low terraces in the island of Danube, on brims of lakes, in caves to Dubova-the Cave of Climente, the Veterani cave, Valea Carasului or in shelters below rock.
Both the demographic development and the sedentary character of the communities caused the focus of living, first of all in places adjusted to human life and then in placements permitting the co-inhabitation of many coherent groups. The Neolithic knows as form of inhabitation the agricultural placement, or simpler the village. To the end of the Neolithic, these villages are fortified, they get sometimes big sizes and an important territorial systematization, representing in fact passing forms from village to town and behaving the incipient form of political organization of a community type of society on ranks and rightful of cutumiar type. Veritably, the end of the Neolithic is marked in the Middle East by the appearance of the first towns (best known is that from Jericho in Jordan). These towns appeared as a sequel of a collective effort on the one side, but also as a sequel of organizing this collective effort and through this one by placing the society in a group of coordination, in other groups specialized in different technical – economical activities and finally in a working force which could be delivered in report of necessity. With this in Proto, Eneolithic or Chalcholitic towns appeared the first locations of power – palaces, frequently associated with sanctuaries whose appearance is even earlier.
As for the house in itself, in the developed Neolithic appeared more constructive techniques using the wood and the clș in rising houses, of surface and with geometric forms, sometimes of relative big sizes.
Key words: settlements, Neolithic, lower Danube, construction techniques.
THE SETTLEMENTS AT THE END OF THE BRONZE AGE AND THE BEGINNING OF THE IRON AGE IN SOUTHERN OLTENIA
In the Zuto Brdo – Gârla Mare area, on both sides of the Danube, there are almost 40 settlements confirmed, but, most of them, were mentioned earlier, they either did not benefit from systematic diggings, or they have been presented very sketchy without digging plans and details regarding the habitation complexes. More information we have about nine settlements Balej, Cârna – Nasta, Cârna – Rampa, Ghidici – Balta Tarova, Ostrovu Corbului, Ostrovu Mare – Colonie, Izvoarele, Hajduca Vodenica, Mala Vrbica – Livade, Usije – Grad.
During the Iron Age is observed, as a characteristic of the habitat, the existence of some small and short period habitations. Most of the sites mentioned as settlements, are actually presented under the form of familiar establishment groups situated at considerable distances one from another. There are few known examples of settlements in Oltenia, from the Early Bronze or the Late Hallshtatt period, that have more levels of habitation and these are usually in the areas privileged with access at natural resources like the Danube’s river meadow.
At Ghidici, on a surface of approximate by 50 x 60 m, between the sand dunes and the Danube, were dogged several dwellings, from which six belong to the Gârla Mare settlement, two of Bistret Isalnita type and four from the First Iron Age.
In the Late Bronze period and especially in the First Iron Age it seems that we assist at the disappearence of vast settlements, with several levels of habitation. This fact could be explained although the climatic changes happened on the whole continent. Based on the palinological, pedological and archeozoological researches, made especially in the areas close to the Carpatho-Danubian zone, has been observed the installation of a period of cold and gradually dryer climate. A. Vulpe presumed that this climate conditions favoured the growth of the pastoral activities, phenomenon with direct implications on the type of the habitat.
The other Hallstattiene fortresses mentioned in the archaeological literature a long time ago, were not dogged or researched previously, and the few information initially known, having the character of some shallow researches, does not give us sufficient data to analyze.
The archaeological documents from the present stage of the researches, with all the lacks, allow us to observe that, in the same time with the existence of a “spreading” habitat, similar to that of the communities that have as the main mean of existence the grazing, are now present the reinforced fortresses that, along with the proliferation of some fatuous habits (the tumuli from Susani and Lapus), denote the existence of some leaders, called seferi, interested in the affirmation and the maintaining of the social prestige.
The fact that in the structure of the house (regarded as a part of the living area) is included the whole cosmic symbolism, from axis mundi, to the first brick of the foundation (when sacrifices were made), gives us the right to presume as possible the ethnographic parallels proposed for the prehistorically populations. Even though we can only imagine the entire mythical structure which could have represented the basis of the human settlement that, through the archeologically observed traces, could offer information related to the social and economical structure of communities.
In the secound part of the work, we present the catalog of the settelments discovered in Southern Oltenia that dates from the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age.
Key words: settlements, Southern Oltenia, Bronze Age, Iron Age.
THE DANUBE AND THE DANUBIAN CITIES AS SPACE OF THE FANTASTIC IN THE DESCRIPTIONS OF A SPANISH SOLDIER, DIEGO GALÁN
OANA ANDREIA SÂMBRIAN-TOMA
The travels have alwșs been a wș of better understanding the world we live in, of discovering new and extremely peculiar civilizations. If we look back to Antiquity and the Middle Ages, we shall observe the main reasons that led the human beings towards traveling. On one hand, the most important type of travel was the pilgrimage: from Jerusalem to Mecca, passing through Santiago de Compostela, the pilgrimage had a sacred and holly purpose. The travel could also be determined by the will of conquer, of exploring, but also by commercial reasons, because of the trade. On the other hand, we could take into consideration people’s hunger for knowledge. The travel brings together two different categories of participants: there is us/the civilized persons, which oppose to them/the uncivilized ones. During the Antiquity, the others were referred to as Barbarians. They were usually fearful beings, which Ammianus Marcellinus, in the 4th century described as being a mixture of humans and animals.
In 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the “Indies” and the words he used in order to describe the images he saw or he believed to see entitle us to affirm that, when facing the New, people tend to judge according to their own a priori knowledge. Columbus had, at the beginning, joined the Portuguese discoverers in their trip to Africa and, subsequently, the African images began to resemble a lot to the American vegetation and food. As a matter of fact, Columbus denied what he really saw and was carried awș by his imagination.
In 1589, the Spanish Diego Galán, age 14, joined the army in search for adventure. Instead, he was made captive by the Algerian pirates. As a Turkish slave, he navigated on the Danube in 1595, participating at the Turkish-Romanian battle of Calugareni (23rd of August 1595) and he described the main Danubian cities he passed through, while sailing towards the battle place: Giurgiu, Varna, Bes Tepe, Macin, Silistra, Braila. As a foreign traveler, Galán refered to the Romanian space from a fantastic perspective: as well as his antecessors, the discoverers, he underlined the beauty, richness and wealth of the Romanian land. He spoke of the great quantity of cattle of cows the Turks robed and that because they were so many they damaged the bridge, which had to be repaired every dș. The Spanish soldier related incredible events, such as the fact that a cow cost much less than bread, because there were so many cows and so little bread. Because of the lack of bread, people began to die, as they were very thirsty and drank water from the Danube. The Danube is conceived as a space which protected the Romanians and was a curse to pagans. Galán wrote his memories when he returned to Spain, after 10 years of captivity. That is one of the reasons why he sometimes made mistakes when talking about the battle of Calugareni. For instance, he placed the event two years later, he spoke about king Matthia of Hungary, instead of Rudolph, he confused certain names of cities (Cristopoli and Hârsova) etc. Galán’s impressions upon the Romanian space were first published by Alexandru Cioranescu and, subsequently, were translated into Romanian in the collection Calatori straini despre tarile române.
Nevertheless, the author of this paper uses her own translation of the Spanish fragments, made after Barchino’s edition of Galán’s memories, published at Cuenca in 2001, as the Romanian published version, does not include all the relates, neither are complete some of the presented fragments.
Key words: Diego Galán, the battle of Calugareni, Spanish imaginary, Danubian cities.
LES DOUANES DU DANUBE DE LA RÉGION PORTES DE FER EN PșANT OLT (XIII-XVIII SIÈCLES)
DINICA CIOBOTEA, ILEANA CIOAREC
Le développement du commerce sur le Danube a attiré l’organisation d’un système douanier approprié. Les nombreux indices, soit documentaires, telle Diploma cavalerilor Ioaniti (Le Diplôme des chevaliers de Saint Jean) soit toponymiques, telle Vadul Cumanitilor (le Gué des Coumans) démontre l’existence des douanes en Olténie, avant la formation des pșs féodaux roumains. Dans une étude approfondie le professeur Henri Stahl a fait preuve à l’histoire que l’organisation douanière et fiscale remonte au moins au XIIIe siècle pendant la coexistence entre les Roumains et les Tatars Coumans. Du point de vue documentaire la plus ancienne douane est celle de Slatina-Olténie, du privilège commerciale accordé par Vladislav Vlaicu aux marchands de Brasov, le 20 Janvier 1368. Très proche de cette douane il y a la douane de Calafat était un centre important du commerce entre Occident et Orient; el jouait le rôl d’échange commercial des biens internes, externe et de tranzit. Des marchands roumains, levantin set italiens s’entrecroisant à Calafat.
Un autre douane se trouva en face de Vidin, connu dans les documents internes sous le nom Vadul Diului. Elle fonctionait aupravant la date de sa première mention, dans le document du 12 Mai 1529, émis par la chancelarie du prince Moise. Au bout de l’ouest de la mare Bistret il y avait depuis 1419 une autre douane, Vadul Bistretului (le Gué de Bistret). Conformemment à l’opinion de l’historien roumain Dinu C. Giurescu, cette douane-ci était présente encore depuis le XIVe siècle, biens que les premières mentions de la mare Bistret n’en faissent pas aucune référence.
Mots clefs: douanes, commerce, Danube, Calafat.
LA VILLE DROBETA TURNU SEVERIN
GABRIEL CROITORU, FLORIN NACU
Basé sur une riche et originale autant éditée qu’inconnue, notre texte propose tout d’abord une analyse des conditions socio-économiques qui ont conduit à l’épanouissement de l’espace urbain roumain de Danube phénomène qui suppose soit l’apparition des villes nouvelles telle Alexandria, Turnu Severin, soit le développement des anciens villes telle Giurgiu et Braïla.
Son apparition à 22 avril 1833, en tant que ville de marchands, doit beaucoup à la decheance de la ville Cerneti, ancien centre du district de Mehedinti.
En étudiant aussi (le contexte géopolitique, l’évolution démographique), nous avons reconstitué les lignes générales de l’évolution de la ville Turnu Severin qui devient assez vite, pendant cinq décennies, un des 18 centres urbains principaux du Royaume de al Roumanie.
Mots-clefs: histoire urbaine, Tunu Severin, Cerneti, évolution moderne.
DES DETAILS DANS LA DIPLOMATIE ET LA POLITIQUE MILITAIRE ROUMAINE-YOUGOSLAVE SUR LA QUESTION DU DANUBE A LA CONFERENCE DE PAIX DE PARIS
CEZAR AVRAM, MIHAELA BĂRBIERU
Dans cette étude, l’auteur a proposé de présenter les politiques promues par les Roumains et Yougoslaves concernant la Conférence de paix de Paris de 1919. Les représentants de la Roumanie et de la Yougoslave ont soutenu les applications des principes du droit international, nécessitant l’application et sur le Danube des règles du droit pratiqué par d’autres fleuves internationaux. Afin d’atteindre ces objectifs, le gouvernement roumain a souhaité un point de vue commun avec d’autres pșs riverains alliés Le Régate Uni serbo-croate slovène et la République de Tchécoslovaquie. Délégation roumaine à la Conférence de Paris a protesté contre les mesures prises par la Interalliée Commission dans les eaux roumaines et a demandé d’appliquer les dispositions du traité de paix conclu avec l’Allemagne: la création de la Commission Internationale du Danube et de la suppression de la Commission interalliée à Budapest.
Bien que la Conférence de paix de Paris la question du Danube ait été longuement discutée, une solution définitive n’a pas été adoptée en raison des intérêts divergents des grandes puissances, la volonté comme une conférence internationale pour définir la situation politique et juridique du Danube.
Mots clefs: Danube, Conférence de paix de Paris, Délégation roumaine, Commission Internationale du Danube.
RELATIONS MILITAIRES ENTRE LA ROUMANIE ET LA YOUGOSLAVIE ENTRE 1924-1933
En trois décennies du XXe siècle, les sentiments d’incertitude et d’insécurité persistent dans les organes politiques et militaires de la Roumanie et la Yougoslavie.Entrée des Allemands dans la ligue des Nations en Septembre 1926 et l’adoption de la résolution condamnant la guerre d’agression en 1927, a été considérée par les experts militaires des deux parties dans l’incrédulité.Ceci peut être vu et le papier d’août 2 de l’état-major du Premier ministre du gouvernement roumain, qui a attiré l’attention sur quelques points qui devraient être harmonisés dans le Pacte Briand-Kellogg. Après la signature du Pacte Briand-Kellogg, la Roumanie et la Yougoslavie ont travaillé à établir de bonnes relations de voisinage avec les États qui n’avait pas réussi à conclure le traité.
Fin de 1931, apporté de nouveaux éléments de la politique étrangère qui a conduit à une aggravation de l’isolement de la Roumanie sur la scène internationale.
Retrait de l’ Allemgneallemand de la Ligue des Nations, le 14 Octobre, 1933, en laissant conférence de travail a marqué le début d’une nouvelle phase, qui est marquée par une longue lignée de révisions territoriale exigée par les États fascistes
ROMANIAN CITIES IN THE LEFT PART OF THE DANUBE UNDER THE EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATIV LAW IN THE YEAR 1938. CASE STUDY: TURNU SEVERIN
The protagonists of carlist polity, installed on 10/11 February 1938, gave a great importance to the administrative organization of the country. They considered that the future configuration of the Romanian state is tightly connected to the application in optimum manner of the administrative reform.
In this study are shown the effects the administrative law enacted on 14 August 1938 had, generally, on the Romanian cities from the left side of the Danube and, especially, on the city Turnu Severin, the residence of the Mehedinti County. The study is divided in two parts.
In the first part are briefly presented the main principles that form the base of elaborating the law project, provisions stipulated in that law regarding the cities, and the modifications appeared compared to the administrative law from 27 March 1936.
In the second part of the study are punctualy shown the stages of the procedure to name the mșors of the resident city of the Turnu Severin county, as well as the measure in which, during the mandate of Colonel Emil Foltzer and counselor Virgil Netta, the law provisions regarding town-planning development have been applied. The study concludes with the effects that were obtained over the public opinion by applying the administrative law.
Key words: Administrative Law, Danube, city, Turnu Severin.
THE CORNETTI ART SCHOOL
The Cornetti Art School was the first music school in Craiova, opened in 1911, after a generous donation made by the Elefterie and Elena Cornetti. The prestigious institution represents a continuous source of art, culture and education, which highlights Romanian dignity and the struggle for greater achievements.
Various documents and writings point out the involvement of the Cornetti family in the public life of Craiova. The Cornetti family will has outlined and defined the legal standing and the internal regulations of the future school of artistic training.
The local authorities, mșors and deputy-mșors alike, have fulfilled the Cornetti will requirements by setting up the Elefterie and Elena Cornetti Music School. In tune with the music, the Ministry of Public Education of that period has decided that the courses held there were equivalent to those held at the Conservatories in Bucharest and Iasi.
The transformation of the art school into a Conservatory could not take place, due to the legal clauses of the Cornetti will. However, in 1935, after a change in the regulations, the school became “The Cornetti Conservatory”.
The “Honour Book” of the Cornetti Art School holds the names of many famous people of the age, standing out among them that of the great Romanian composer George Enescu, who had visited the school on several occasions, and had the pleasure of hearing some of his works in the interpretation of the proud music teachers and students of this school.
Key words: Cornetti Art School Craiova, urban, institutions.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN TRADE IN THE OLTENIAN DANUBIAN PORTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY
NARCISA MARIA MITU
This article wishes to evidence the important role plșed in the evolution of the Romanian trade by the Danubian ports from Oltenia: Calafat, Corabia and Turnu-Severin.
If in the first half of the 19th century the external trade realized through the instrumentality of these ports was reduced and meant to satisfy especially the needs of the Turks and of the river-side countries, starting with the second half of this century, the Romanian trade will make its wș to the Occidental countries such as England, Austro-Hungary, France and Italy with which Romania had concluded trade conventions.
If at the beginning, the external trade practiced by Romania meant the exporting of salt, vegetables, fruit, cattle and animal products and, in a smaller extent, cereals, starting with 1950-1960 it will preponderantly be directed to the trading of agricultural products, especially wheat.
The year 1893 is representative for the Romanian export and import when it reached the maximum level, maintained in the next years too. The Romanian trade from the Danubian ports would be affected, registering a decrease, by the breaking out of the Italian-Turkish war from 1911, of the second Balkan war and of the First World War.
In the inter-war period, could be remarked the year 1934, when the export is reinforced, registering a raise of quantity and value, important as referring to the period 1924-1928.
At the end of the first part of the 20th century, the cereals trade that ruled for a century, will lose field for the trade with timber and other products.
Key words: Romanian trade, Oltenian ports, Danube, economic development.
LOAN COOPERATION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT IN MEHEDINTI COUNTY: ORGANIZATION, EVOLUTION AND LEGISLATIVE BOUNDS (1885- 1944)
The network of commercial banks set up at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, with the support of the Romanian National Bank could not ensure all the needs for capital solicied by the large masses of peasants, by the small craftsmen and office workers, these still depending on the the money lenders. To decrease the negative effects of usury, a truly campaign regarding the creation of cooperations of loan and economy was unleash.
On the ground of the adopted law after 1903( the Bill for rural popular banks and their central House from 1903 with the changes suffered in 1905; the Bill regarding the setting up of the cooperations for craftsmen and workers since 1909; Nenitescu Bill since 1912) which facilitated the development of urban cooperation, in Turnu Severin were functioning 5 cooperative societies of loan and economy: Mehedinti Bank, Severin Bank, Dunarea Popular Bank, Comerciantilor si IndustriasilorBank, Casa Poporului Bank. These were considered commercial societies and were founded by the small farmers, craftsmen, priests or office workers. The loans granted by these popular banks were there for the endowment of the farms, for reconstruction of the dwelling destroyed by fire or to continue their studies etc. Regarding the granted loans, there were on short period, for almost one year, and in exceptionally cases on middle term, 4 or 5 years.
As the popular banks increased, and their financial means multiplied, it appeared the necessity of organizing in unions and federatives. Thus, at 1st of Mș 1916 began the avtivity, in Turnu Severin, Mehedinti Federative.
The unleash of the First World War made difficult the activity of the popular banks from Mehedinti. During 1916-1918, they have not developed banking operations, their activity being resumed between 1919-1920, when because of the lack of ware, they organized services of supply for people with articles of grocery.
After the First World War, urban popular banks from Mehedinty county developed their activity on legislative ground, elaborated during 1919-1928. In the balance sheet closed at 31st December 1928, in the urban environment from Oltenia, were functioning 18 popular banks from which 4 were in Turnu Severin.
Until 1932, the number of popular banks grew with 6 banks, the cooperation registred in this period the largest number of loan institution until now. In the years of the Second World War, the urban popular banks from Mehedinti contributed at the supporting the people with the necesary credits for productive activities and they supported the supply with ware for the large consume.After 1944, the principles of the modern cooperation will be abandoned, being replaced with principles that allowed the complete enthral of the cooperative economy by the State.
Key words: urban, popular bank, Mehedinti county, credit, evolution.
PARLIAMENTARY DISCUSSIONS AND DEBATES REGARDING THE REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION FROM 1866
LOREDANA MARIA GROZOIU
At a constitutional level, within the systems of government are established mandatory decisions for individuals and are put into practice measures meant to assure the public security of these individuals, according to the interests, the wishes and the dreams of the population. The Romanian electoral system represented and still represents that central element of the political life because, through suffrage, the nation exercised its sovereignty, designated its representatives to govern and administrated the country.
The Romanian institutional-modern organization was framed in a continental general process and in its constituting were especially used the models of the Latin states. If the modern institutions of the Romanian state resulted from a general evolutionary process that took place at the middle of the 19th century in Europe, this process was as well substantiated on an internal basis.
Having as a model the Belgian Constitution from 1831, Romania’s new fundamental law from 1866, represented an instrument meant to hurry the completion process started by the Romanian modern institutions. Between 16th/28th of February – 30th/12th of July 1866, the activity of elaborating the Constitution brought to light the contradictions between the leading socio-political forces from Romania in that period of time. Continuing into another historic period, the process started in 1858, this Constitution was actually a compromising path followed by the liberals, conservatives and Domn (ruler).
The 1866 Constitution presented the emerging of some democratic ideas in the Romanian society, plșing an important part in the ulterior development of the Romanian state. With all its limitations, maintained because of the conservative majority, this Constitution founded the representative governing system in the Romanian modern state.
This Constitution was revised in 1879, 1884 and 1917.
Therefore, in 1879, the art. 7 was modified, by eliminating the interdiction regarding the obtaining of the Romanian citizenship by the people of Mosaic religion.
In June 1884 were promulgated both the law for the revision and the modification of some articles from the Constitution and the new electoral law.
On 20th of July 1917 were revised another three articles from the Constitution. Therefore, according to art. 19, the syntagm “cause of national use” was replaced, in the case of expropriation, with “the extension of the rural property through the expropriation of the cultivable land in the next degree and conditions, with the purpose to sell it to the farmers, especially to those mobilized from this category, or to their families, if they had died because or during the war”. In art. 57, the principle of the qualification suffrage was replaced with the universal suffrage, on the basis of the proportional representation, applicable to both Assemblies. In the mean time, according to the revised art. 67, the Senate was made up of elected and lawful senators and “the principles from the electoral law regarding the Deputies Assembly and the Senate, being considered constitutional dispositions, were to be included in this article”.
On the basis of this constitutional establishment the central institutions of the modern Romanian state functioned and evolved until February 1938.
Key words: revision of the Constitution, parliamentary debutes, legislative bodies, political parties.
INSIDE AND INTERNATIONAL REACTIONS CONCERNING THE SIGNING OF THE BUCHAREST PEACE TREATY (APRIL 24th / Mș 7th 1918)
GHEORGHE FLORIN GHETAU
At the beginning of 1918 the inner and external situation of Romania was complicated because the only ally with it was in direct contact with – Russia – had come out of war, which explained why our country was defeated by the force of circumstances and not on the battlefield.
Under those exceptional circumstances, the only wș to preserve Romania’s state of intact was to sign a Peace Treaty with the Central Powers. That necessity was materialized through the signing the Bucharest Peace Treaty on the 24th of April/7th of Mș 1918.
Although Germany’s and its allies’ military situation required a quick agreement with Romania for as many brigades as possible to be available for the other war fronts, the Central Powers’ negotiators stubborned to impose a Treaty with draconian stipulations for the Romanian state and that made it strikingly look like a dictate.
That Treaty naturally aroused the disapproval of the public opinion in Romania and in its allied countries. Fortunately, Entente’s victory over the Central Powers, obtained at the end of 1918, resulted in the cancellation of the Bucharest Peace Treaty on the full satisfaction of all those who were horripilated by its enslaving character.
Key words: Bucharest Peace Treaty, negotiations, Entente, Central Powers.
LENINALIA. ON THE V. I. LENIN’S PERSONALITY CULT IN THE SOVIET PRESS
The press image is very far from the realistic portrait of a man. It is the deliberate creation of a positive symbol for the socialist order. The undeniable charisma of the original image of Lenin has been extended and diluted in order to make him agreeable for mass consumption by a not very sophisticated public. Interestingly enough, this practice of glorifying the founding leader is contrary both to Lenin’s own belief and to Marx’s thesis according to which history traces the evolution of a series of class struggles and it is not the result of the action of isolated individuals.
Key words: Lenin’s cult, soviet press, cult of personality, Pravda newspaper.
DICTIONNAIRE DES ANCIENS MÉTIERS. LES LETTRES A – B
La disparition des certains métiers et l’apparition des autres, nouveaux, est un phénomène constamment présent dans l’histoire des sociétés en tant que résultat des changements intervenus dans les structures socio-économiques des communautés. Le Dictionnaire des anciens métiers, le premier de son genre pour la lexicographie roumaine, a l’ambition de grouper tous les noms des métiers et professions qui ont disparu pendant les derniers siècles. Leur étude peut contribuer sans doute à une meilleure connaissance tant de la stratification historique de nombreux métiers appartenant aux domaines différents de l’économie sociale que de l’évolution sémantique de la langue. Le dictionnaire dépasse donc l’intérêt étroit des spécialistes, visant un public plus large, curieux de découvrir le pittoresque de notre passé et les réalités cachées derrière l’histoire des mots.
Le texte inclut les premières deux lettres : A – B.
Mots-clefs: anciens métiers roumains, évolution sémantique, dictionnaire, réalités sociales.
EMINESCU AND THE REAL-SEMITISM (III)
In the third part of the study the author presents the real-Semitism (the Jewish problems) through his perception on the necessity regarding the creation and the defending of the national economy; Romania, obtaining its political independence on the battle field, also needed an economic independence, where the “economic gaps” would be filled with autochthon elements from the middle class, positive and productive, in the prejudice of the Romanian upper classes and the unproductive immigrants that did not obey the laws of our country. Among these immigrants he discovered many Jews that had come from Galicia and Russia (where they had been persecuted), who rendered an account only to the foreign ambassadors from Bucharest and who did not make any attempt to integrate themselves into the Romanian economy. Eminescu criticized only those Jews recently arrived into the country, in a great number, that requested political, administrative or economic rights without considering any obligation to the state. Are praised the already naturalized Jews (that settled down in this country a long time ago) and who undertook a productive activity and lived an honorable life, along with the autochthon population. Eminescu was a good friend with the great Jewish savants (Mases Gaster, N. Tiktin), defended the Jews from Romania against some aggressions, was the first commentator in the world who wrote about the first Jewish theatre from Iasi. His sometimes violent writings from some articles were due to the calumnies from the foreign press, manipulated by the International Israelite Alliance, regarding our country and the involvement of this organization in our internal affairs. These articles were documented answers to the above mentioned calumnies.
Key words: real-Semitism, national economy, economic independence, Eminescu.
INFLUENCE ET INTERFÉRENCE LINGUISTIQUES: ASPECTS TERMINOLOGIQUES
IULIA CRISTINA FRÎNCULESCU
Cet article fait un tour d’horizon des aspects terminologiques, aussi que conceptuelles, concernant les influences et les interférences linguistiques des phénomènes résultant du contact de deux ou plusieurs langues et se manifestant par l’emploi, dans une langue, d’éléments propres à une autre langue. Au cours de leur évolution, historique et géographique, les langues entrent en contact les unes avec les autres, provoquant des situations d’interférence linguistique. L’utilisation des deux systèmes de langue par les mêmes sujets aboutit au bilinguisme, un autre concept discuté dans cet article. En bref, la diversité des études sur ces concepts réclame un survol du champs théorique de la problématique en question, avant toute application pratique.
Mots-cléfs: influence linguistique, interférence linguistique, contact, bilinguisme.
L’ETUDE DES HISTORIES DE VIE SUR LA PROPRIETE ENTRE ARCHIVE ET “CREATION” DU DOCUMENT ETHNOLOGIQUE
Les études de folklore doivent faire toujours un mouvement constant entre observation et conceptualisation, conduire un dialogue ouvert avec la recherche de terrain et integrer sa mobilité dans une manière active. L’histoire de vie est en même temps une methode de recherche et un document, une méthode qualitative qui donne voix aux plusieurs subjetivités. Elle ouvre un nouvel espace de recherche, pour les etudes de folklore. Cette étude-ci explore les capacités de l’histoire de vie – méthode et document en même temps, moyen de recherche et element d’archive qui peut être questionné constamment. L’étude de la propriété et de la dynamique des mentalités dans le context de la société post-communiste roumaine représente un sujet de recherche ethnologique qui peut être exploré à l’aide d’une methode-document comme celle de l’histoire de vie.
Mots clefs: histoire de vie, Roumanie postcomuniste, proprieté, document ethnologique.
L’HISTOIRE D’UN CONCEPT: L’ÉROS EUROPEEN AU XIXE SIECLE – MADAME BOVARY
Le sujet en question représente la conclusion d’une ample étude consacrée à l’histoire de l’éros européen tel qu’il a été pensé dans la culture occidentale à partir du XVe siècle et jusqu’au XIXe siècle.
Le découpage chronologique choisi est significatif et pas aléatoire dans le sens où le concept en discussion est poursuivi depuis qu’il est prêt – selon l’opinion de l’auteur – se soumettre à l’idée jusqu’au moment où, à travers l’histoire narrée, il ajoute une dernière note.
Le bout du chemin de cette l’histoire est représenté par deux moments littéraires, l’un espagnol, qu’on trouve dans la pièce de théâtre «Célestine» de Fernando de Rojas, et l’autre français, narré dans le roman Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert.
L’originalité de cette étude consiste dans la compréhension d’un concept dans sa dimension génétique, c’est-à-dire sur la dimension de l’acquisition de tous les éléments qui le transforment dans un tout auquel on ne peut plus rien lui ajouter.
Mot clefs: l’éros européen, Madame Bovary, culture, histoire des concepts.
SARTRE AND THE PSYCHANALYSE
For Sartre, the man becomes himself, as a result of a fundamental project of self. This project express brings them back natives of conscience with the being and decides on the concrete personality of the man in the world. The method with the aid of what they can put in an obvious place the fundamental project of self is the existential psychoanalysis. To acquire it, Sartre subjected the Freudian psychoanalysis to radical changes, as well as between the psychoanalysis of Freud and the existential psychoanalysis of Sartre there is more difference than likelyness. By virtue of this difference, the existential psychoanalysis takes shape as an original method, which wants to highlight the choice to be by who every person makes, to, it herself announce that she is. The instant when the existential psychoanalysis will have success in its concrete researches, it will destroy daily morality, because the man will understand that it is the only source of the value, therefore which it makes itself in complete freedom, being absolutely responsible for all its acts.
Key words: the being, conscience, the fundamental project of self, the Freudian psychoanalysis.
A FRONTIER DISCIPLINE OR AN AUTONOMOUS ONE: THE IMAGINATIVE IN DEBATE
The controversy regarding the Imaginative as a frontier discipline or an autonomous one is artificial. We do not have to put the problem in these terms, between the autonomy and non-autonomy, between the specificity and the uniformity, as it is a false question and we can not draw a valid conclusion. In spite of this apparent contradiction, we will have to give a credit to the opposite principles. As a matter of fact, the Imaginative tends to constitute the complex domain of anthropology. We find again the founding idea of Gilbert Durand who wished to gather around the study of the Imaginative anthropology the specialists from the different human sciences. The interdisciplinary vocation of the Imaginative becomes peremptory in the process of his constitution as an autonomous discipline.
Key-words: autonomous, Imaginative, discipline, specificity.
THE RECEPTION IN THE ROMANIAN LAW OF THE NORMS REGARDING THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE INHERITANCE
After a presentation of the heirs from the point of view of the acceptance of the inheritance in the Roman Law, the author describes simultaneously, in the Roman and the Romanian Law the possibilities of the acceptance of the inheritance, the legal term of the acceptance, as well as the effects of the inheritance.
Key words: heredes extranei, heredes voluntari, pro herede gestio, beneficium inventarii.
INDUSTRIAL INJURIES DISABLEMENT BENEFITS FOR WORK ACCIDENTS AND PROFESSIONAL DISEASES
An accident at work is defined as a violent damage to the human organism or a vocational acute intoxication, suffered during the execution of work or arising out of it, which causes damage to the health, invalidity or loss of the life of the employee (the insured). In the worst cases, it causes occupational fatality. Workers’ compensation offers pșments to employees who are (usually temporarily, rarely permanently) unable to work because of a job-related injury. However, workers’ compensation is in fact more than just income insurance, because it mș pș compensation for economic loss, reimbursement or pșment of medical and like expenses (functioning in this case as a form of health insurance), general damages for pain and suffering, and benefits pșable to the dependents of workers killed during employment (functioning in this case as a form of life insurance).
When an accident at work or a professional disease causes the employee’s disability, the employee mș be able to get some benefits stipulated by Law nr. 346/2002: medical recovery; rehabilitation and vocational training; industrial injuries disablement benefit for temporary work disability, benefit for temporary movement to another workplace; benefit for shorter hours, severe disablement compensation, compensation for decease, expenses reimbursement. The contract of employment is suspended during the duration of the work stoppage until the medical recovery.
Key words: work accident, benefits, disability, professional disease.
THE RELATIONS OF ROMANIA WITH IMF AND IBRD. EFECTS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN ENERGETIC RESOURSCES
PETRE OPRIS, LAURA-ANTOANETA SAVA
The first negotiations of the Romanian authorities with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) were started in the summer of 1968 at Bucharest. Unfortunately, the Czechoslovak crises from August 1968 forced Nicolae Ceausescu to postpone the affiliation of Romania to IMF and IBRD until December 1972.
The Romanian economy was modernized using credits obtained from IMF, IBRD and from the Western countries. Nicolae Ceausescu used his new credibility to obtain credits and to negotiate with 16 foreign companies for developing the extraction of energetic resources from the Black Sea.
Key words: Romanian energetic resources, European policies, negociations, regional development.