SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING CHALCIDIC TYPE HELMETS FROM THE CARPATHO-DANUBIAN AREA
The Chalcidic helmets were first described by Arthur Furtwängler together on the occasion ofwith the processing of materials found in the old diggings made at Olympia. E. Kunze made the first typology for this category of helmets, starting from the idea that their origin must be searched in one of a bronze-craftsmen’s workshop from Chalkis, in Euboeea, or in one of the Chalcidic colonies from Southern Italy. This type of helmets is more often spread in the south of Italy and Greece, being somehow related to shape with those known as „the Attic type”, which is more commonly represented on ceramics. We can notice that the number of the Chalcidic type helmets diminished during the 6th and 5th century BC in Greece, but remained present in Macedonia and Thrace.
Such helmets have been discovered in Bulgaria at Ruec, the district Târgoviste, at Judelnic, the district Ruse, in Macedonia at Arzos, or in the Serbian Banat, near Vršac.
In Romania, the Chalcidic type helmets have been discovered at Zimnicea, in a tomb, at Budesti, Calarasi district, in the river Arges, or at Facau, the town Mihailesti, Giurgiu district, not very far from the Getic settlement from Popesti. A very interesting discovery, because of the position associated with the helmet, was the one made near the village Cuptoare, on the low terrace of „Sfogea” hill, the commune Cornea, Caras Severin district. Here in 1985, was found a tomb containing a cup placed upside down and a helmet which contained calcimined bones.
The piece from Bals, which comes from a fortuitous discovery, has almost 40 cm height, with the calotte of ellipsoidal shape, marked on the middle of the forehead by an acute angle, with the vertex orientated upwards. The arches are evidenced with prominent stripes, united at the superior part of the nose. The cheek protectors have the front side notched and the back side rounded. The backhead protector is curved inside and with the corner rounded. Taking into consideration the analogies with the other Chalcidic helmets found in the Low Danube area, we can assume that this helmet belongs to the 5th – 4th century BC period.
If we pș more attention to examining all this type pieces discovered in Romania, we shall observe that some of them have been mistakenly assigned, from the typological point of view, either to the Attic type (the helmet from Zimnicea), or to the Corinthian type (the pieces from Budesti), although because of the calotte’s shape, the modality of profiling the arches, the nose and the cheek protectors, it is evident their belonging to the Chalcidic type.
From all these results that this type of helmet can be considered a defensive weapon, characteristic for most of the warriors from the Low Danube area, the majority of them being Getae. Of course, taking into consideration the low thickness of the bronze sheet from which such pieces were made, we can assume that the role of these helmets had been that of a parade object, of denoting the warrior’s status within the community. We can also imagine that such exemplars certainly belonged to the heads of a local organization.
Key words: Chalcidic helmets, Low Danube, Getae, typology.
THE ANGELIC LEGITIMACY OF THE POLITICAL POWER IN THE EASTERN MEDIEVAL ICONOGRAPHY
Liviu Marius Ilie
It is a common place of the medieval ideology that, during the Middle Ages the political power had a divine origin. The insignia of the temporal power, such as the crown, also belonged to God, who gave them to the prince, by the mediation of an intercessor; the ecclesiastical iconography from Byzantium, Serbia and Wallachia recorded the image of an angel crowning the political sovereign. In this wș, in their flight from Heaven to Earth, the winged messengers legitimized the political power and tried to settle dynastical problems, to justify the change of the kingship or to strengthen a country weakened by a foreign suzerainty.
Key words: angels, kingship, iconography, dynasty.
L’IMAGE DU PRINCE DANS “L’HORLOGE DES PRINCES” D’ANTONOIO DE GUEVARA, TRADUIT AU ROUMAIN PAR NICOLAE COSTIN
Pour Antonio de Guevara, uns des plus importants auteurs espagnols au l’époque de la Renaissance, le prince régnant devrait avoir beaucoup des qualités, car il n’était pas un simple homme, mais la tête de son royaume. Le prince devrait être un bon Chrétien, savoir s’entourer des personnes sages. Il devrait aussi faire la différence entre les mauvais et les bonnes, aider les pauvres et être un grand amant de la culture. Le prince était l’équivalent de l’imago Dei, du miles Christi et du roi contractuel, ou la dernière image se réfère à l’engagement qui le roi prenait devant son peuple, l’église et Dieu. L’histoire du corps du roi représente aussi l’histoire de l’état. Pour le siècle de la Renaissance, l’apparition de l’image du corps, bien défini, est, peut-être, le centre des ses préoccupations plus importantes.
Key words: Renaissance, translation, moral principles, the good Christian.
L’INSTAURATION DU «REGIME PHANARIOTE» EN MOLDAVIE ET EN VALACHIE. CONSIDERATIONS GÉNÉRALES
Pour la soi-disant «époque phanariote», les historient ont accepté, par convention, les limites chronologiques suivantes: 1711–1821 pour la Moldavie et 1716-1821 pour la Valachie. Etant donné que le premier prince considéré phanariote a été Nicolae Mavrocordat, on peut établir pour moment de début de cette « époque phanariote » son premier règne en Moldavie, (6 novembre 1709–23 novembre 1710). Quelques uns des princes phanariotes connus furent: en Valachie, Alexandru Sutu (6 novembre 1818–19 janvier 1821), en précisant que le dernier prince, nommé sans cependant occuper le trône, fut Scarlat Callimachi (février–juin 1821); en Moldavie, le dernier prince phanariote fut Mihai Sutu (12 juin 1819–29 mars 1821).
Le régime phanariote fut un système politique, social et culturel dans lequel se sont intégrés tous ceux qui avaient accepté inconditionnellement ce système de valeurs, fondé sur le respect des liens d’obéissance envers les Turcs et l’orthodoxie conservatrice. Les phanariotes étaient en même temps des Roumains grecs ou des gréco-levantins, porteurs des valeurs et des traditions byzantines.
Les principales caractéristiques de cette époque phanariote ont été: la nommée de princes étrangers au pșs, recrutés dans le quartier Phanar de Constantinople, pour lesquels régner dans les Pșs Roumains était la dignité la plus haute qu’ils pussent obtenir après avoir rempli la fonction de dragoman (traducteur) de la Porte; la dépendance toujours plus accentuée par rapport à l’autorité centrale ottomane, qui tendait à assimiler les deux principautés à deux provinces ottomanes, la compétition acharnée pour le trône, qui a raccourci la durée moyenne des règnes et a augmenté considérablement l’exploitation économique des deux pșs, l’abolition du droit des Principautés d’entretenir des liens diplomatiques avec les Etats chrétiens et le caractère permanent de la présence des représentants princiers (capuchehaie) a Constantinople, recrutés, évidemment, toujours parmi les Phanariotes.
La consolidation de la domination ottomane sur les Principautés Roumains, la pénétration des éléments grecs dans l’administration de la Moldavie et de la Valachie, les tendances d’émancipation manifestées par certains princes locaux à partir de la fin du XVIIe siècle et le début du XVIIIe , les conséquences de la paix de Carlowitz (1699), notamment la perte de la Transylvanie et de la Hongrie de l’Est, ont déterminé l’Empire Ottoman à faire intégrer les deux principautés roumains dans son système économique, politique et militaire, par l’instauration des règnes phanariotes.
Key words: duplicity, Enlightenment, the Phanariot Age, Grecisation
THE BAILESTI FIELD RURAL SETTLEMENTS REFLECTED IN SOME CARTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTS FROM THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURY
The Bailesti Field, through its geographic position and the diverse natural environment, constituted, since the antiquity a region with great economic attraction and convergences in many aspects (historic, social, spiritual etc.). Each component of the geo-system offered to the people wide spaces, able for dwelling and for practicing agriculture. As a result, the human settlements appeared here since the Neolithic, which is demonstrated by the prehistoric sites. If until the 18th century the proofs regarding the existence of the human communities on this territory have been offered by the archeological discoveries, written documents but also some maps with, unfortunately, a modest content, starting with this century, the information is improved once with the appearance of cartographic documents with a richer and more diverse content.
The maps from the 18th century can be divided in two categories: general maps made at a small and medium scale, from which we mention the maps realized by Rizzi Zannoni (1774 and 1782), I. F. Schmidt (1774), F. L. Güssefeld (1785), C. M. Roth (1771), C. Rigas Valestinli (1797), and small scale maps realized by the military Austrian engineers: the map realized by Frederich Schwantz (1722) and Specht’s map (1791).
One of the oldest cartographic documents that contain the studied geographic area is Walachia’s map drawn by the High Steward Constantin Cantacuzino (1700) which, although it is approximately and with few details, having more likely with the characteristic of an itinerary, it shows few settlements that still exist: Bailesti, Bistret, Calafat and so on. Representative for this space are the maps realized by Frederich Schwantz (1722) and Specht (1791) which register, besides the natural and socio-economic phenomena, a great amount of settlements. On Schwantz’s map are written, for the Bailesti Field area, 50 settlements from which almost half are deserted village, devastated by wars (pagus desolatus), but, yet, temporary depopulated. The density of the villages remained approximately the same also on Specht’s map because the socio-economic feudal type conditions didn’t allow enhancing the value of the field optimally.
In the 19th century, once with the penetration of capitalism in agriculture, the field regions became more intense populated. For the Bailesti Field the phenomenon is best shown on The Russian map (1835) which, in addition to the anterior maps, offers statistic information regarding the number of households, and The Meridional Romania map (1864), in which the number of represented settlements is approximately 54 and 53.
The cartographic materials, through the spatial image they offer on the processes and natural or atrophic phenomena, are evidences for the existence of human communities, for the wș they took advantage of the geographic space. The analysis of the rural settlements from the Bailesti Field, in the light of the mentioned cartographic documents, representative for this space (realized on long periods of time), allow us to see the evolution of the villages, both temporal and spatial, proving once more the permanence of the autochthon population in these regions.
Key words: cartographic documents, rural settlements, development, Bailesti field.
LES PROPRIETES FONCIERES DES BOYARDSGLOGOVEANU DANS LES DISTRICTS DE MEHEDINTI ET GORJ
L’article essaie de proposer une analyse des propriétés foncières des districts Mehedinti et Gorj qui ont appartenu aux boyards Glogoveanu.
Nés à Glogova, les boyards Glogoveanu sont attestés pour la première fois au XVème siècle, plus précisément à 1405 lorsque les documents signalent un certain Rou de la Glogova, ban de Jiu et Tismana.
Le village de Glogova, le lieu d’origine et d’affirmation socio-économique et politique, a gardé toute son importance comme telle jusqu’à la fin du XVIIème siècle.
Maîtres d’un important patrimoine foncier, les boyards Glogoveanu ont essșé par le biais des stratégies matrimoniales s’insérer aux autres familles avec une ancienne et haute origine. L’existence de ce domaine foncier est démontrée par des nombreux testaments, actes dotaux, cadastres, des excellents témoignages pour l’histoire sociale de la famille olténienne.
Cette famille seigneuriale a eu des propriétés foncières dans les districts Dolj, Gorj, Mehedinti et Romanati, résultat soit de l’acquisition soit des alliances matrimoniales. Certaines propriétés foncières sont restées dans le patrimoine de la famille, d’autres ont été vendues ou ont été fait don au monastère Tismana. L’analyse de leur patrimoine foncière s’avère intéressante pour reconstituer le statut, le prestige économique et social dont cette famille jouissait dans la société roumaine.
Key words: Boier – boyard; Domeniu funciar – estate; landed property; Mostenire – heritage; Judet – district.
LA VILLE ROUMAINE – LA VILLE OCCIDENTALE. DES RESSEMBLANCES ET DES DIFFÉRENCES
Gabriel Croitoru, Florin Nacu
Dans cette étude, les auteurs se proposent de démontrer que l’idée selon laquelle l’espace extra-carpatique n’a pas connu des villes dans les XVIe-XVIIIe siècles, est erronée. Il s’agit d’une erreur de perspective, car on ne peut surposer étroitement le modèle occidental de la ville sur des réalités urbaines de l’Europe de l’est, de même qu’accorder une confiance totale aux récits de voyageurs occidentaux. Il est bien connu que le discours des derniers véhicule des stéréotypes qui mettent l’accent notamment sur les différences entre le centre civilisé de l’Ouest et la périphérie sauvage de l’Est.
Key words: urbanization, comparative perspective, typologies, population.
L’ORGANISATION ECCLÉSIASTIQUE EN VALACHIE (1849 – 1856)
Angela Ramona Dumitru
Dans cet article on analyse, du point de vue institutionnel et édilitaire, l’organisation ecclésiastique de la Valachie dans les années 1849–1856, tenant compte de quatre aspects majeurs: l’élection des grands prélats de l’Église Orthodoxe; la fondation des séminaires et les publications théologiques; les églises et leur restauration; le statut des monastères et le problème de leur dédicace par l’État. Les rapports entre l’Église et le Règne, en tant qu’institutions centrales de l’État moderne, étaient de soumission par l’intermédiaire du Département de l’Intérieur. Le 27 juillet 1849, le corrompu Néophite – qui avait auparavant occupé le siège épiscopal de la Valachie – signe sa démission; le 14/26 septembre 1850, on a fait réunir une Assemblée de 40 électeurs qui allait élire Niphone comme successeur au trône métropolitaine. Cette étude est complétée par un document en français – «Calcul préparatoire de la subvention que les Couvents Grecs devront pșer en Valachie», avec les noms des propriétés sises en Valachie, qui relevaient des Saints Lieux et leur revenu actuel par an (calculé en piastres). Dans ce document annexé, les monastères valaques dédiés étaient divisés en cinq catégories, d’après leur appartenance au Saint-Sépulcre, à Roumélie, au Patriarcat d’Alexandrie, aux Couvents du Mont Sinaï ou du Mont Athos.
Key words: Wallachia, 19th century, ecclesiastic organisation, institutional perspective.
CULINARY CUSTOMS IN WALLACHIA FROM CONSTANTIN MAVROCORDAT TILL 1859
The study of the taste and food in Walachia between 1740 and 1859 can make use of the writings of the foreign travelers, the cookery books, the contracts of dower with many examples of table linen and the economic documents guarded in the archives or published in time, containing contracts signed for supplying the city of Bucharest with meat and prices asked for food on the market. According to this sources, the Romanians usually eat cheese, eggs, milk with ”mamaliga” (maize porridge), vegetables and meat. The people from Walachia also drunk local and French wines, brandy and “tuica”. The food was guarnished with spices like onion and pepper.
Key words: food, taste, Walachia, travelers.
„CET HOMME QUE LA PATRIE PLEURE A CHAUDES LARMES”: LES FUNÉRAILLES PUBLIQUES DU GRAND LOGOTHÈTE ALEXANDRU GHICA (1850)
Les funérailles du grand logothète Alexandru Ghica, le père du prince de la Moldavie, Grigore Ghica (1807-1857), constitue une excellente occasion pour l’étude des rituels politiques dans l’espace roumaine moderne. Conformément aux changements qui affectent les pratiques politiques de l’Europe du XIXe siècle, marquées par l’essor du nationalisme, on trouve un mélange entre les éléments des cérémonies funéraires traditionnelles et les représentations du deuil du grand homme de l’Etat et du bon fils de la Patrie. Vu les conditions spécifiques, socio-politiques du Principauté de la Moldavie à cette époque-la, il convient de refuser le terme de «culture libérale de la mort» que certains auteurs (Emmanuel Fureix) utilisent en se rapportant aux réalités historiques de l’Europe Occidentale (France).
Les élites politiques, le menu peuple, l’Eglise, l’armée sont convoqués et puis organisés autour du corps du défunt dans une cérémonie rigoureusement établie dont le but est plus qu’évident: un dernier hommage apporté à celui qui représente à la fois la famille princière et le corps national, donc le corps politique entier.
A partir d’un document découvert aux Archives Nationales de Iasi, l’article essaie de souligner l’importance d’une anthropologie historique des pratiques funèbres, afin de montrer le glissement d’un cortège ordinaire, réglementé au début du XIXe siècle, vers une représentation du pouvoir politique qui essaie de proposer un événement négatif de la famille princière en tant qu’affaire nationale. Emprunts et conservations historiques, présence et effacement du peuple, montrent les paradoxes d’une culture politique de la mort qui conserve plutôt le visage de l’Ancien Régime, tout en essșant proposer un discours sur les rapports entre l’individu et le corps social que l’idéologie nationale de l’époque en impose et qui est mieux reflété dans les productions des certains intellectuels de cour tels Gheorghe Asachi.
Le but du texte est également de proposer quelques clefs d’interprétation de ce moment d’ «effervescence funèbre» (Emmanuel Fureix), entre dernier hommage rendu au grand fils de la Patrie, célébration d’un représentant de la famille princière, commémoration d’un membre du corps de l’Ecclésia, pour mieux souligner l’effet catalyseur du rituel dans la production de la solidarité du corps social. Ce qui est notamment à remarquer c’est autour de qui s’organise cette solidarité: car le rapport étroit entre l’individu et le corps social que le nationalisme de l’époque envisage d’une nouvelle manière ne peut cacher la position centrale que la famille princière en tient, autour de laquelle doivent s’organiser les solidarités sociales et politiques. C’est une représentation qui va bien en accord avec la plupart des conceptions monarchiques de l’Europe, notamment après la chute des régimes politiques instaurés à la suite des révolutions de l’année 1848.
Key words: cultural history, political ritual, public funerals, Alexandru Ghica.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE BANKS FROM VÂLCEA COUNTY BETWEEN 1901- 1948
The founding of Romanian National Bank created the necessary premises for the appearance of other banks, and for development of the Romanian banking system. The Romanian National Bank was constituted as an important institution meant to credit the economical and commercial activities. On 1st January 1901, the National Bank became an institution with private capital, the State getting out of the association.
Taking into consideration that the Romanian National Bank became a society on stocks with integral private capital, the executive decided at 13th December 1901 the founding of an agency at Ramnicu Valcea. The purpose was the granting of some cheap credits necessary to the majority of enterprisers, for developing the trade, industry and to consolidate the country properties.
The Agency Rm. Vâlcea of the Romanian National Bank began to function in August 1902 and the first accounting operations were registred in October 1902. The founding of the Agency had a great influence on the creation of banking system from Valcea. After seven years since the beginning of the institution of credit, in Vâlcea district had functioned six commercial banks and 75 popular banks. Among these 6 commercial banks, 4 developed their activity in Rm. Valcea: Valcea Bank, Ramnic Bank, Providence Bank, Fortuna Bank, and two in Dragasani: Dragoesti Bank and Commercial Union Bank.
The founding of these banks determined the development of the industry in the district. The trade developed as well as the tanning industry, the pottery, the milling, etc.
In the year 1926 was founded the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Rm. Valcea. Since the second half of the year 1931, all the existent firms from Valcea have been registred in the Order Book. With this occasion, in the period August-November 1931, were registred in every banking units from the district: anonymous societies with central office in the Vâlcea district, the opened branches in the Vâlcea district belonging to the anonymous societies with the central office in other districts; as cooperative societies of credit and economy (popular banks). Among these we mș mention: Dragasani Bank, Horezu Bank, Brezoiu Bank, Wineyard Bank, Peasants Bank, Commercial Bank, Commerce Bank Balcesti, Brothers Aslan &B. Stefanescu; Vaideeni Commercial Bank; Plowman Bank; Oltetul Commercial Bank, Commerce Bank, Discount Bank of Romania, Viticultural Bank; etc.
Once with the Second World War, a lot of transphormations teak place as the nationalization of the Romanian National Bank in December 1946, the applying of the law regarding the directing and the control of credits, in July 1947, the monetary reform in August 1947; the liquidation of private banks in August 1948, the reorganization of the Romanian National Bank in November 1948. The operations of private banks from the Valcea district were taken over by Romanian National Bank, the granting of credits being done directly by the Romanian National Bank spread all over the country.
Key words: bank, loan, economy, Vâlcea district.
NOTES REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF PRIMARY, PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS FROM DRAGASANI (19TH – 20TH CENTURY)
Loredana Maria Ilin-Grozoiu, Georgeta Ghionea
Education appeared and evolved together with the society, proceeding as a factor of progress, spreading material and spiritual values along the years. The human personality became along the ages a vital necessity for thedevelopement of the society, assuring a permanent connexion between generations.
An important role in formation and education of the human personality it had the school servants, who contributed to the improvement of some worthy characters in the service of the Romanian society. Through the instructional-educational activity and the results obtained in different school competitions the schools from Dragasani demonstrated they were inexhaustible sources of knowledge, culture and talents which drove through years the fame of this region. As it is known “the man blesses the place” Dragasani gave to the country important personalities formated in its cultural institutions. Among these we mș recall: the writer Gib. Mihaescu (who followed primary school between 1901-1904), the avant-gardist writer Alfredo Bogardo (student at the boys-school between 1918-1920), the teacher of arhitecture Sava Ion Nanu (student at primary school between 1922-1925), governor Mugur Isarescu (student at the elementary school “N. Balcescu between 1959-1963. The gallery of Dragasani personalities also includes worthy to be mentioned: His Grace Valeriu Anania and the priest Dumitru Balasa, who through their activity, have contributed to the development of education in the region.
The school from Dragasani evolved rapidly setting its mark on the economical and cultural development of the region. In the period 1848-1861 it functioned in Dragasani a school which had its activity on the property of Ramnic Eparchy. In the year 1861, the eparchy school became a state school.
In 1901 was founded the Technical School from Dragasani which had the following specializations: smithy forge, fretwork and tinsmithing. In 1912 with the occasion of participating at an exposition in Bucharest, an important award is obtained thanks to the teachers’ talent and grace to formate of the young generations of craftsmen.
On 1st September 1903, Laura Simulescu, the wife of the ex prefect of Vâlcea district, Dimitrie Simulescu, let through her testament to Dragasani the school for primary and professional education. The school was unique through its special building from that period, having a watch, floor and current water.
The School nr.1 Dragasani began to function in 1923 under the executive Nicolae A. Ilie (1923-1924) being built with the help of the mair, Marin Serbanescu.
In 1912 was built the urban School for girls. Afterwards we find it under the name of the primary School for girls Getta. In 1948 the name was changed into the School 1st of Mș, since1995 had the name Tudor Vladimirescu School.
The Elementary School no.5 Momotesti – Gardesti was raised between 1922-1923 from the initiative of some local people: Constantin Papureanu, Ion Petrica, Nicolae Dovleac, Ion Doran and Dumitru Truta. The school was built near the iron bridge upon the Pesceana river.
Between 1932-1933 was founded the Elementary School no.4 the Head of the Hill which developed its activity firstly in private houses with rent. It dispose of its own place with a classroom, Stefan Radulescu being teacher there during 1932-1937.
In conclusion, we mș confirm that the local people were and still are passionate about culture, the different types of schools founded according to the necessities of time being a good prove of that are.
Key words: professional school, education, culture, Dragasani.
THE MODERNIZATION OF THE RURAL WORLD DURING THE REIGN OF CHARLES I: THE LANDS BELONGING TO THE ROYAL CROWN (1884-1947)
The lands belonghing to the of Royal Crown were thought as a solution for the improvement of the financial situation of the royal family, so that the budget of the country was not to be disturbed. Even though these lands belonged to the state, they were used by the king.
As a conseqence of his wish to modernise these farms, king Carol I brought foreign experts as a first step, and then he wanted to train Romanian specialists for this job. The king’s main interest, assisted by the administrator of the Royal Crown lands, Ioan Kallinderu, was to assist the farmers for a better land work. In this respect a grat importance was given to the process of teaching these farmers. The first step taken was the building of schools and churches, libraries which contained different books meant to awake the interest for national literature. At the same time, they build dwellings for land administrators, workshops for the young to learn a craft: carpentery, agriculture, weaving etc. In the villages, there were organised classes for adults, cultural organisations, theatres where conferences and festivities were held. For those who worked in the Royal Crown Administration, were founded boarding houses which gave facilities and assistance for many years.
All these initiatives, considered to be institutions which fought the poverty and the lack of education, mș be conceived measures as taken in a modern state, begining with the coronation of Prince Charles.
Key words: Romanian kingdom, royal domain, rural space, modernization.
FIRST PARLIAMENT ELECTIONS BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL VOTE (NOVEMBER 1919). DOLJ COUNTY
On the 17th July 1917, the decision factors of the Romanian State decided to reform the electoral system. It was adopted principle of the universal vote and the articles 57 and 67 from the Romanian Constitution were modified according to this principle. The old electoral system, based on qualification, ceased to exist.
On the 14th November 1918, was published the decree-law of electoral reform, that was later modified for several times and on the 26th January (14th February) 1919, the instructions for applying this decree were published.
The first Parliament elections, organized in Romania, based on the universal vote, took place on the 2, 3 and 4 November 1919 for the Deputies Chamber and on the 8 and 9 November 1919 for the Senate. At first, it was decided that these elections should take place in January 1919. This decision was cancelled. Later, the elections were postponed for six times (for March, Mș, July, September, October and November, 1919). The decision factors from Bucharest motivated these postponements bringing as an argument following causes: slowness of preparations, the power’s representatives being unable to fulfill on time the formalities demanded by the new electoral law; the complications occurred in the foreign politics.
According to the decree-law, the elections took place on electoral circumscriptions. Every county formed an electoral circumscription. For the Dolj County, the decree-law established 14 places for deputies and 6 for senators. The vote was “universal, equal, direct, obligatory and secret”.
The complications that occurred in fulfilling these tasks had many causes. The main cause resulted from the elements of innovation introduced by the law (elaboration of the electoral lists, voting procedure etc.). A large number of persons authorized in order to elaborate the electoral lists (mșors, communal office workers and police office workers) were confused by the extension of the voting right. They do not have the necessary time to assimilate the principles of law. The result was the elaboration of incomplete electoral lists. Later, there were organized conferences where the main parts of the law were explained. Some difficulties appeared because many inhabitants did not understand that the vote was a citizen duty. They waited to be placed on the ex officio lists.
In the Dolj County, 89 candidates applied for the 14 places in the Deputies Chambers, on 10 electoral lists. The result was: 4 representatives from the National-Liberal Party, 4 from the Dissidents National-Liberal Party, 4 from the Peasant Party, one from the Nationalist Party and one from the Progressive-Conservator Party. The 14 representatives of the Dolj County were: Constantin Neamtu, Ion Florescu, Mitu Stoenescu, Ath. N. Gancea, Iulian C. Vrabiescu, Titu P. Andreiescu, N. P. Romanescu, C. N. Popp, Alexandru Giulea, Nicolae B. Rioseanu, Stefan Velovan, Elie Sandoiu, general G. Marcu, Nicolae N. Murgaseanu.
30 candidates on 5 electoral lists participated at the elections for the Senate. The National-Liberal Party list received the majority of votes. The 6 senators elected were: G. R. Geblescu, Dr. Elie Antonini, M. Policrat, Ion Stefanescu, Spiridon Filimon, the priest Ion Barzeanu.
During the electoral campaign, a number of factors caused confusion and suspicion in the middle of the electorate from the Dolj County: the migration of politicians from one party to another; electoral programs incompatible with the people that supported it; negative propaganda made by de conservators and the representatives of the People League, which did not join the electoral race; the elements of innovation in the electoral law, especially those regarding the voting procedure etc. Comparing to other elections, the ones from November 1919 developed calmly: there were no beatings, no voting from suspect individuals. Closing down the pubs helped to avoid scandals. In the 8 voting sections and subsections from Craiova and 20 voting sections and subsections organized in Dolj County, troupes were present for the purpose of maintaining the public order an resolve the unforeseen situations.
In the Dolj County, the first Parliamental elections, based on the universal vote, represented a success of the National-Liberal Party, in contrast with the elections result at the level of the entire Romania.
Key words: universal vote, Parliament elections, Dolj County, political parties.
THE POST-WAR ORGANIZATION OF THE WORLD (1945-1947)
The article The Postworld Organization of the World (1945-1947) emphasizes the role of the reunions between the Three Allies from Teheran (1943); Yalta (1945), San Francisco (1945), Potsdam (1945) and during the Conference of Peace from Paris (1945-1947). It also analyzes the main objectives of the three great powers USA, Soviet Union and Great Britain: the continuation of the war untill final defeat of that states which formed the Rome-Tokyo-Berlin Axis; the final definition of the post-war statute of Europe and the institution of an international organization with the aim to maintain peace and security in the world.
At the same time, the author emphasizes the wș these meetings and especially the Treaties of Paris accentuated and accelerated “the process” of the communisation of Romania and the other states from the East and South-East of Europe (Albania, East Germany, Bulgaria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia).
Key words: the IInd post-war statute, international organization, diplomatic reunions, great powers.
THE MONUMENTAL ART AND THE SOCIALIST PAST. THE CASE OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA
My intention in this essș is to look into the issue of totalitarian architecture in order to observe that a persuasive ideological system was developed in Romania and Bulgaria during the communist regime. The historical debates on monuments that occurred after 1989 generated two major types of discourse on the notion of “the sacred death” inherited from the socialist period. The first type of discourse examined death as a symbolic paradigm of the socialist regime. The other discourse insisted on the factuality of death, on its natural becoming as a fact in the contemporary history of the two countries, as a set of „illuminating” points, which should be discussed according to the heroic meaning that was attributed to the monuments under the present debate. From this perspective, death had to remain untouched and unchanged as it was initially represented within the structure of these monuments. Death was seen neither as a product of a certain historical interpretation, nor as a true-to-fact reality. It was rather seen as a reality out of time, especially if it was placed under a particular ideological discourse.
Key words: Communism, totalitarian architecture, communist mausoleum, the politic body of the leader.
THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE REGULATIONS CONCERNING LABOUR RELATIONS IN ROMANIA
Cezar Avram, Roxana Radu
The history of the formation and development of labour relations on the territory of the Romanian Countries, in the modern sense of the notion of wage labour, which precludes the forced labour, the unpaid labour and the notion of slavery, has its origins in the old Romanian law. Thus, the first persons who carried out an activity in the state’s interest (precursors of the civil servants) and got a material reward for their work (although they were not employees of the state) can be considered the rulers and the judges. The rulers were appointed and revoked by the voivode to whom they declared an oath of allegiance. Until the reform of Constantin Mavrocordat, the rulers did not receive a salary, but they were rewarded by the voivode. An important element of Constantin Mavrocordat’s reform (1730-1731) was the creation of the institution of professional judges, paid by the state. Another significant moment for the Romanian law trajectory and, implicitly, for the historical evolution of the labour relations, were the Organic Regulations which set up a juridical system with career magistrates and judiciary office workers, all of them being paid by the state.
The most important regulation concerning the labour relations was made by Alexandru Ioan Cuza’s Civil Code, adopted in 1864 and came into force on the 1st of December 1865. The article 1471 of this code forbade the conclusion of a convention through which a person pledges itself to carry out its activity or services without any stipulated term of contract extinction.
The 1866-1918 period was characterized by the elaboration of a vaste legislation concerning the labour relations. The Constitution from 1866 regulated the right of association in professional organizations (article 27). The first laws in the matter of working dș duration were
The Law on organizing the sanitary service (June 1874), the Regulation for the insanitary industry (1875), the Sanitary Law (1885) and the Regulation of the insanitary industry (1894). The resting on Sundșs was stipulated by the Law from the 6th of March 1897 and, afterwards, by Law on Resting Sundș from 1910.
Another important law was the Law against the trade unions, professional organizations of civil servants, district, comunal and public establishments’ employees („The Orleanu Law”) – 1909 – which forbade the right to association of civil servants, artisans and state workers in any kind of professional association and also the right to strike, the violation of these legal stipulations being punishable by very severe punishments.
In 1912 was adopted the Law on organizing handcrafts, credits and labour insurances which included a part concerning the labour insurances – the first juridical regulation in this field, meant for the adjustment of better life and working conditions.
The setting up of the International Labour Organization, in 1919 (Romania being one of the founding members), gave an impulse to the activity of regulating labour relations through the adoption of certain important normative acts such as: the Law concerning the regulation of labour conflicts from 1920, the Law concerning trade unions from 1921, the Law regarding the resting on Sundșs from 1925, the Law on organizing the functioning of the Work Inspection from 1927, the Law concerning the protection of children and women at work and working dș duration from 1928, the Law on labour contracts from 1929, the Law concerning the Labour Chambers from 1932, the Law for the setting up of the labour jurisdiction from 1933, the Law concerning the occupational training from 1936, the Law on corporate bodies from 1938. After 1938, labour legislation knew an involution thorugh the limitation of the association right and the worsening of working conditions.
The stipulation, for the first time, of the right to work principle and its guarantees in the Constitution of 1948 and the adoption, on the 8th of June 1950, of the first Romanian Labour Code (Law no. 3/1950), put the basis of a new branch of law science: the labour law.
The Constitution of 1952, the one of 1965, as well as the new Labour Code from 1972 changed the conditions of exercising the right to work according to the communist regime rules: the right to work did not imply the freedom to work, but only the obligation to work.
After the events from December 1989, all the normative acts adopted in the field of labour law had the objective of abrogating all restrictive regulations, inhibitory for the new market economy. The fundamental law in the labour relations field is the new Labour Code (Law no. 53/2003), adopted, together with a new ensemble of normative acts, in order to align the Romanian legislation to community norms.
Key words: historical evolution, regulation, labour relations, Romania.
A SEQUENCE FROM THE BATTLE FOR GREAT ROMANIA “REVISTA NEAMULUI” EDITED BY IOAN URSU – SPECIAL ISSUE
The author brings to our attention some unacknowledged information about Ioan Ursu’s activity as editor in chief of „Neamul Romanesc”. One of the most promissing Romanian Medieval historians, member of the „Liga Culturala pentru Unitatea Romanilor de Pretutindeni” (The Cultural League for the Unity of All Romanians), he also got involved in a public sustainment of the official Romanian Foreign Policy regarding the unity of the Romanians beyond the borders.
Key words: Ioan Ursu, Neamul Romanesc, cultural propaganda, First World War.
LA POLLUTION PHREATIQUE ET LES POTENTIALITES PATHOGENES DUES AUX INONDATIONS DU PRINTEMPS 2006 DANS LE PERIMETRE ADMINISTRATIF DU VILLAGE RAST
Sandu Boengiu, Oana Ionus, Alina Boengiu, Mihaela Licurici
À la suite de débits historiques du Danube pendant le printemps 2006 les digues de protection des villages riverains ont cédé. Ils se sont produit des inondations catastrophiques au bord du fleuve, sur la surface qui a été soumise à la dessiccation pour agrandir le terrain agricole et sur les surfaces importantes de la première terrasse. Une des conséquences des inondations a été le changement des qualités de potabilité d’eau des puits. Dans cette période les déterminations physiques, chimiques et microbiologiques de l’eau de la nappe phréatique du village Rast ont mis en évidence des véritables augmentations des valeurs normales de tous les paramètres analysés tant que des potentialités pathogènes significatives. En juin, du total de 1050 puits que ASJ Dolj a tenu sous évidence seulement 746 puits ont été désinfectés. En vue du control des conditions de potabilité d’eau, ils ont récolté de ceux puits 76 échantillons à chaque 24 heures, par sondage, des déférents zones du village. Du total des échantillons d’eau analysés dans l’intervalle mai – octobre 2006, il en résulte les pourcentages suivantes: 69,73% échantillons non – conformes du point de vue bactériologique; 69,73% échantillons non – conformes du point de vue physique et chimique; 85,5 % échantillons non – conformes tant du point de vue bactériologique aussi que physique et chimique.
Key words: pollution, nappes phréatiques, santé publique, Rast, Danube.
DES LIVRES DE LA FAMILLE PRINCIÈRE CONSTANTIN BRÂNCOVEANU À CRAIOVA
On peut considérer que l’activité des imprimeries a été parmi les meilleurs réalisations de la culture de l’epoque du régne de Constantin Brâncoveanu (1688-1714). L’imprimerie a été précédée d’une période des essais et des réalisations qui a commencé à 1508 et a continué au cours du XVI-ème et XVII-ème siècle. Les livres roumaines, bilingues (slavo-roumaine) ou en grec, arabe et turc ont été imprimés dans l’époque de Constantin Brâncoveanu en cinque centres typographiques qui ont fonctionné sur le territoire de la Roumanie à Bucuresti, Buzau, Snagov, Râmnic et Târgoviste. Mais on trouve aussi de nombreux livres qui ont été imprimés avec le soutien du prince régnant; à Alep et Tbilisi; dans des regions plues éloignées, telles Antioche et Ivire. L’ouverture d’une telle politique éditoriale est confirmé par la circulation des livres imprimés par les métropolites Mitrofan, Antim Ivireanu; diffusés dans tous les Pșs Roumains.
Key words: Constantin Brancoveanu’s library, books, circulation, editorial politics.
THE ROMAN THEATRE, A MODEL OF UNIVERSAL DRAMA
Alexandra Iorgulescu, Mihaela Marcu
In this study we followed the evolution of the Roman out of date theatre, but still present in history, often present as a model and sources of influences in different stages of the theatre and the universal dramatic literature.
We find references about the beginnings of the Roman theatre at Titus Livius, a lot of them referring to the Fescennine songs that had a marked satiric content, of a similar nature with the spirit of parody that was frequent in Greece in the 4th century B.C. It is the time when the language gets a more literary stand and the development of the subject gets a settled character because of the Hellenized poets` mission who separates the tragedy from the comedy.
The organization of the shows was the mission of a special magistrate that treated with the band-acting-managers. Starting with the 1st century A.D, the actor`s social status will improve with the enormous popularity acquired by the theatre. As a result of this period of beginnings, searching and soundings, we would have expected to result a more autonomous dramatic creation. This fact has not occurred yet, only in a minimum proportion because the foreign influence – especially the Greek one – proved to be more powerful.
Inspired by the Greek models, the Roman adaptations also bring significant changes like: the extension of the numbers of actors, every role having its own performer; the choir completely disappears, the scene gets considerable dimensions. In the revolution of the theatrical act, the gestures have a continuous development that according to Quintilian`s assertion “must illustrate the actor`s thoughts and the feelings.”
Born of Greek imitation, the Roman dramatic creation was adapted to the Latin taste as it was addressed to the sensitivity and even sensuality. Of the todș`s positions of the modern critique, the comedy seems to correspond more to the tastes and the degree of the evolution of Rome at that time. Now we understand why the plebs amused themselves plentifully at Plautus` plșs, without minimizing the popularity of the tragic topics that displșed moral and physical sufferings, not at all negligible, of a people fond of war and fights between gladiators.
The spiritualized pleasures offered by the serious theatre were not liked by the common crowd with primitive shows conceived for the flattery of the senses.
As it was seen, we presented the first scenic representations (dances, songs, dumb-shows) that date back to 364 B.C that entered the Roman soil through Etruscan actors. In 240 B.C, the first plș written by a Latin author was performed (Livius Andronicus). Further, the comedy was illustrated by great names like Plautus and Terentius, whose contribution was evaluated. After a century of literary theatre, shows of pure visual entertainment gained popularity, like: the dumb-show, the mime, the atellana and the improvisations.
In conclusion, we can sș that the Roman theatre was and is a model for the universal drama, on which it had a strong influence.
Key words: Roman theater, universal drama, cultural model, specificity.
L’AUGUSTE DANS LES FASTI D’OVIDE (Le Ier livre)
Les Fasti du grand poète latin Ovide représente bien une grande poésie du Calendrier Romain. L’auteur a versifié les Fêtes, les rites et le mouvement des étoiles. Plus encore, la lecture des Fasti permet de saisir aisément les caractéristiques de l’Auguste, celui qui pour le poète reste Le Grand. Il fait une étymologie poétique du nomme de l’Auguste, le premier empereur des Romains. Le portrait de l’Auguste est très objectif car il contient les références à ses principales actions qui ont visé les institutions, les temples et la paix romaine. Auguste est Le Grand parce qu’il est le fondateur d’une nouvelle Rome, qui est devenu déjà la reine du monde.
Key words: Ovid`s Fasti, calendar, Augustus, Principat.
EMINESCU AND THE REAL-SEMITISM
In the second part of the study “Eminescu and the real-Semitism”, the author makes a historical excursion regarding the tolerance of the Romanian rulers towards the settlement of Jews on the Romanian territory, brings forward some texts from the Romanian legislation and discusses the opinion of some of the Romanian writers regarding the Semitism (Dimitrie Cantemir, B. P. Hasdeu, Alecu Russo, M. Kogalniceanu, V. Alexandri) or Romanian politicians (the ruler, then the king Carol the First, I. C. Bratianu, I. G. Bibicescu, Titu Maiorescu, Lascar Catargiu, C. A. Rosetti, I Cantacuzino, Dimitrie Sturza, Ion Ghica), ending with Eminescu. The author quotes from the pertinent (profound) and objective studies of some Jewish researchers (Moses Gaster, Harry Kuller, Wilhelm Filderman, Raul Hilberg, Ion Ianosi, Leon Valovici, Andrei Oisteanu, Carol Iancu), studies which concern the living together and the necessity of integrating the Jews into the Romanian society during different periods of time.
The author concludes that in his studies and articles, Eminescu, don’t criticize the Jews from the ethnic or confessional point of view, but only from the economic one, including them, along with the Romanian or the other foreigners, in the “wealthy”, economically reproductive class. The term “real-Semitism” is taken from the acad. Nicolae Cajal, the ex-president of the Jewish Communities from Romania.
Key words: Eminescu, real-semitism, Romanian society, Jews’integration.
BALTAGUL DE M. SADOVEANU: UN ROMAN IMAGO-TIPIC. OCUPATII, FAMILIE SI MOD DE VIATA
Emilia Parpala Afana
Baltagul reprezinta, în opinia autoarei, un roman imago-tipic si semiotic, care consolideaza cele mai importante stereotipuri asupra specificului natural al românilor si care interpreteaza semnificatiile ascunse prin intermediul semiologiei.
Sinteza imagologica a romanului Baltagul confirma ideea discontinuitatii în evolutia auto-imaginilor literare. Este infirmata, astfel, imaginea fatalista, contruita de balada Miorita si pe cea devalorizanta, impusa de opera lui Caragiale de la sfârsitul secolului al XIX-lea.
Key words: archaic mentality, ethnic identity, imagology, self-images.
„AGORA – A GLORIOUS LANDMARK IN THE PANORAMA OF THE ROMANIAN EXILE PUBLICATIONS”
This title is an exact copy of Virgil Ierunca’s words regarding Agora, an important and famous Romanian publication from exile.
The paper presents this magazine created in the United States of America by an other writer from exile, Dorin Tudoran. It appeared in 1987 (till 1993) under the auspicies of Foreign Policy Research Institute from Philadelphia and its name became soon well-known due to the important political and cultural articles, but also due to the famous writers who signed in Agora, such as Eugen Ionesco, Mihnea Berindei, Mihai Botez, Marta Caraion, Matei Cazacu, Matei Calinescu, Ioan Petru Culianu, Victor Frunza, Virgil Ierunca, Monica Lovinescu, Ion Negoitescu, Virgil Nemoianu, Ion Vianu; Alain Besançon, André Glicksmann, René Tavernier.
A special appreciation of the magazine did (as I mentioned before) Virgil Ierunca in an article published in a Romanian journal from New York, Lumea libera. The Free World. The paper cites Ierunca’s favourite articles and his points of view regarding them.
Agora was not an exclusive literary magazine, but especially a cultural one, an „alterantive” magazine, having from the very begining its own original structure. It had many original chapters (such as „Fara viza – Pagini din România”/ With no Visa – Pages from Romania, where the reader could fiind poems or prose signed by the authors who, still living in Romania, riscked their life to send their creations to the American magazine; other chapter was „Romania din afara Romaniei/ Romania from outside of Romania, having articles, poetry, prose or some pages of different exiled authors’ diary; other example is „Idei. Opinii. Atitudini”/ Ideas. Opinions. Atitudes, where important names of the exile took up an attitude against the communist sistem.
A special contribution brought to composition of Agora the editor in chief, Dorin Tudoran, with the leading articles, edition after edition, their themes being more political than cultural.
The paper presents some of these leading articles as well as poems, prose or essșs, this magazine becoming an important example of the cultural activity of the Romanian exile.
Key words: 20th century, Romanian exile, Agora, publications.
SPATIUL LITERAR CA SPATIU INTERTEXTUAL (TOPICA, TIPOLOGIE, HETEROTOPISM)
Studiul analizeaza trei concepte împrumutate din diferite arii disciplinare, care sunt totusi interconectate: topica (concept retoric, înteles ca sistem al unor topoï sau loci communes), tipologie (notiune împrumutate de catre filologi din matematica pentru a configura anumite caracteristici ale spatiului literar) si heterotopism („espace autre”) teoretizat de Michel Foulcault. S-a observat o legatura între heterotipism si heterocronie, concept propus de Thomas Pavel în L’art de l’éloignement. Essai sur l’imagination classique. Acesta se refera la tendinta oamenilor de a se proiecta pe sine in mod imaginativ în alte timpuri si spatii. Toate aceste notiuni pot fi subsumate modului (neo)clasic de negociere a relatiilor intertextuale, ca fiind opuse preferintelor moderne de a fragmenta, catre lipsa de coeziune, ironie si alte strategii deconstructive.
Key words: literary space, intertextuality, topics, topology.
CÂND POSTCOLONIALISMUL ÎNTÂLNESTE POSTMODERNISMUL: AFIXAREA LUMII SI CONSECINTELE SALE
Îndelungatele si delicatele dezbateri asupra relatiei dintre discursul postcolonial si cel postmodern au fost, initial, fundamentate pe plasarea acestor discursuri, din punct de vedere temporal si istoric, în cadrul disciplinei cunoscute începând din anii ’50, sub numele de „studii culturale”. Aceasta situatie a dat nastere unui paratext revizionist al tuturor paradigmelor culturale occidentale. Exista un loc comun, în care cele doua concepte se intersecteaza, dar nu putem, totusi, nega existenta unui spatiu intelectual în care se dezvolta un ansamblu de probleme, referitoare la discursul postcolonial si postmodern ca sfidare a modernitatii. Autoarea ofera o explicatie sistematica asupra intersectarii celor doua discursuri, pornind de la proiectul modernitatii, fundamentat pe principii epistemologice, etice si estetice.
Key words: postcolonialism, postmodernism, modernity, representation.
NUME DE BOTEZ DERIVATE DIN ETNONIME
Numele de botez, care deriva din etnonime, reprezinta microsisteme antroponimice bine individualizate. Pornind de la apelativele care exprima nume entice, s-a ajuns la porecle care, mai târziu, au devenit nume proprii. Strainii care s-au stabilit pe teritoriul românesc aveau mai multe porecle care indicau ocupatia, originea locala a elementului etnic de unde apartineau. În sistemul antroponimic francez numele de botez defineste frecvent tara de provenienta. Numele care apartin acestei categorii acctentueaza relatiile existente între oameni si pamânt, teritoriu, casa, urmând conceptiile antice regionale. Toate aceste antroponime, care la început au avut o valoare etnica, au devenit, cu timpul, nume proprii (de botez) sub diferite forme, în acord cu regiunea din care faceau parte.
Key words: anthroponomical system, surname, ethnonym, name.
“OLD” PROFESSIONS IN THE CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE PRESENT OCCUPATIONS
In this article we wanted to determine how many of the old professions (or trades), practiced in the past, are still preserved in the current terminology. The analysis of the existing material allowed us to notice the existence of two situations:
a) Profession with the naming officially registered in the classified list of the occupations from Romania;
b) Profession without their naming registered in the classified list, but which are very old and frequently used in the common speech.
Regarding the first category, we made a distinction in relation to their oldness, classifying them according to two periods of time:
1. Present occupation which were attested before 1650;
2. Present occupations which were attested after 1650.
We noticed that 27 trades, which exist in the archive documents before1650, are now present among the occupations from our country. These are: aprod, arhiereu, baies, calugar, calugarita, capitan, cioban, cizmar, cojocar, crainic, croitor, curelar, diacon, episcop, gradinar, morar, olar, paznic, pivnicer, portar, potcovar, preot, rotar, staret, vacar, zidar, zugrav. They can be divided, according to the field they belong to, in three categories:
a. Church: arhiereu, calugar, calugarita, diacon, episcop, preot, staret;
b. Employments: baies, cioban, cizmar, cojocar, croitor, curelar, gradinar, morar, olar, potcovar, rotar, vacar, zidar, zugrav;
c. Functions in the ruler’s administration and army: aprod, capitan, crainic, paznic, pivnicer, portar.
After the year 1650, the written documents significantly increased their number, especially those in the Romanian language. Along with this, rises the possibility that the names of many other occupations to be present in official papers. From all the trades practiced after 1650 and until the middle of the 19th century, are nowadșs recorded in the classified list the next ones: argintar, arhiepiscop, arhondar, armurier, blanar, brutar, bucatar, cantaragiu, cazangiu, camatar, caraus, cântaret, ceaprazar, ceasornicar, cioplitor, cofetar, cosar, dogar, dulgher, exarh, fierar, geamgiu, giuvaergiu, gonaci, haham, herghelegiu, imam, inginer, intendent, judecator, lacatus, lumânarar, lustragiu, macelar, mitropolit, muzicant, oier, opincar, patriarh, padurar, pescar, pictor, pietrar, plapumar, protopop, sobar, sticlar, tabacar, tipograf, tâmplar, vânator, vânzator.
There are also occupations which, although they are very old (some of them being attested before 1600), are not, todș, among the professions officially registered. Yet, they are frequently recognized in the current talking: dascal, doctor, ploscar, popa, vames, vataf.
Once with the evolution of the society and the industrial development, beyond the graphic appearance of the words, which remained unchanged during the time, in some cases their meaning changed.
In nowadșs great variety of new occupations we can still come across some professions that have even hundred of years of history. Their perenniality (at functional, but also at lexical level) is preserved, mșbe, because they include basically occupations, specific for our people.
Key words: terminology, professions, industrial development, Romanian space.
DES RECHERCHES DANS LE DOMAINE DE L’ONOMASTIQUE LITTERAIRE ROUMAINE (CONCERNANT LA POESIE)
Des recherches dans le domaine de l’onomastique littéraire roumaine ont été réalisées tant en ce qui concerne la prose, autant que la poésie. On a fait des recherches dans les œuvres de certains poètes, comme George Cosbuc, Mihai Eminescu, Ion Barbu, Marin Sorescu.
Les chercheurs ont essșé de mettre en évidence le rôle des noms propres et leur fonction dans le texte littéraire. Interprétant le nom propre comme figure de style du texte poétique, les chercheurs considèrent que la dialectique des personnages est modelée en fonction des facteurs comme: le lieu et le moment précis de l’apparition du nom propre dans le texte aussi comme l’importance de la signification sémantique.
Key words: poetry, literature, onomastics onomastics, research.
DES REPERES ONOMASTIQUES DANS TIVISOC ET TIVISMOC DE C. S. NICOLAESCU-PLOPSOR Elena Camelia Zabava
Le présent article a comme objet d’étude l’onomastique dans le conte Tivisoc et Tivismoc (Les fils inexistants de Pacala, les merveilleux des merveilleux), édition soignée par Aurelian I. Popescu, réalisée par l’édition „Scrisul Românesc”, Craiova, 1987.
C’est à Stela Radulescu qui appartient, dans une intéressante étude, intitulée L’onomastique dans les Contes d’Olténie (publiée dans „Les Archives d’Olténie”, nouvelle série, no. 9, 1994, pages 145-152), une pertinente analyse des noms propres, retrouvés dans les écrits de C. S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor, plus exactement dans ses contes d’Olténie
Choisissant un titre comme Repères onomastiques dans Tivisoc et Tivismoc, on désire envisager l’interprétation du conte de Plopsor à travers plusieurs points de vue onomastiques. Cela veut dire, prendre en discussion non seulement la toponymie et l’anthroponymie du texte, mais aussi la zoonymie, la connotation du titre et les titres des chapitres.
L’identification des repères onomastiques dans le livre de C. S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor est plus provocatrice autant que l’encadrement du conte Tivisoc et Tivismoc dans une certaine catégorie littéraire est très difficile à faire, sinon impossible à réaliser, „parce qu’il n’est ni conte, ni roman, ni simple recueil d’anecdotes, mais il est quelque peu de tous qui puisse lui offrir l’unicité dans notre littérature”. Cette situation a été bien soulignée par l’auteur de la postface de l’édition à laquelle on fait référence.
Dès le début, c’est le titre même qui surprend. Juste après qu’on l’explique, une novelle voie vers la compréhension du sens du livre de Plopsor s’ouvre, car le titre est vraiment la clef du texte.
Le sous-titre du livre, Les fils inexistants de Pacala, les merveilleux des merveilleux, donne encore au lecteur un indice, pour que le premier chapitre, Les réussites de Tivisoc et de Tivismoc avant qu’ils soient nés. Les enfants de Pacala désirent venir au monde, présente ensuite les deux personnages qui semblent appartenir à un univers absurde et qui sont à la recherche d’un nom.
Si les noms des personnages sont étranges, c’est aussi que leur description physique ne connaisse des correspondants en réalité. Leur portrait physique est projeté dans l’esprit du lecteur par l’intermédiaire de la sphère de l’absurde.
Les deux noms, bien qu’ils aient de la résonance, se situent quelque part à la limite de l’absurde. On crée l’impression qu’ils perdent pratiquement la fonction dénominative qui est suggérée plutôt par l’impression de jeu.
L’anthroponymie est assez pauvre du point de vue numérique, mais tant suggestive, notamment pour l’espace géographique évoqué dans le texte: Pacala, oncle Marin le grand, le pope Coliva (coliva signifie „gâteau de blé et de noix que l’on distribue à la mémoire des morts”, dans ce cas il s’agit d’un sobriquet), On Panduru, Trica, Marin.
Les noms de lieux, bien qu’ils ne soient pas si nombreux dans le texte de Plopsor, contribuent à la localisation des faits et des histoires, se délimitant dans un espace géographique concret et bien déterminé: Vaideei, Maciuca (des villages dans le département de Gorj), Atârnati, Ascunsa, Bucuresti. On retrouve dans le conte deux syntagmes toponymiques: La Cité des Bans (ban, haut dignitaire) et Le Nouveau Bourg, suggérant la ville de Craiova, respectivement Caracal.
En ce qui concerne la zoonymie, celle-ci est très peu représentée dans le texte. Bien que l’inventaire onomastique soit relativement pauvre, les noms deviennent si suggestifs par la forte connotation qu’ils ont dans le texte.
Key words: onomastics, Romanian literature, C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor, Tivisoc si Tivismoc.
ETIMOLOGIA NEOLOGISMELOR ROMÂNESTI DE ORIGINE FRANCEZA
În acest articol se analizeaza neologisme din limba româna contemporana, ce provin din limba franceza, din perspectiva etimologica. Accentuam faptul ca limba româna contemporana include multe neologisme, cele mai multe provenind din limba franceza. O treime dintre acesti termeni reprezinta împrumuturi de diferite tipuri etimologice.
Key words: Language, vocabulary, Romanian etymology, French neologisms.
THE HISTORY OF A CONCEPT OR CONCEPTUALIZING ”A HISTORY” – FOLKLORISTICS ANS ITS EPISTEMOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
Folklore and folcloristics opened the space for numerous debates; the specialization of social sciences and the challenges of interdisciplinary studies also added their contribution to redefining the methodology and the wșs of approaching the socio-cultural reality.
The present paper focuses on an issue pretty much dicussed during last decades – the challenges folkloristics must face. It isn’t this paper aim to make assumptions about this discipline’s future and its evolution, but rather to focus on its identity construction we might sș. Although folkloristics mș appear like an accumulation of concepts, definitions and (re)contextualizations from different scientific perspectives rather then a programmatic process, a coherent nucleus mș stands for its core identity.
A permanent ’self questioning’, ’self awareness’ regarding its theory and its methodology can be objectivly identify. That is why highlighting the folklorisitcs’ disciplinary identity can be better achieved if the perspective on its historical development is changed. Thus folkloristics seems to be characterized by constant epistemological and methodological adaptations within its dinamic process of questioning the socio-cultural reality, pșing attention to recording and contextualizing folkloric phenomenon, alwșs concerned with the ‚openness’ of its documents to future researches and perspectives.
The expression „conceptualizing a history” mș respond to this attempt to offer o comprehensive perspective on the definitions and conceptual intruments of folkloristics during its early beginings as a science.
The contemporary challenges of folkloristics open new perspectives regarding the spreading of its research field as well as the refining of its methodology within present interdisciplinary relations between social sciences.
Key words: folkloristics, oral history, folkloric document, reflexivity.
BAPTISM AND ANOINTING WITH EXAMPLES FROM THE REPERTORY OF CAROLS FROM LOVISTEA
The theme motif of the baptism of Jesus in the three rivers of wine, chrism and milk (type 173 as classified by M. Bratulescu) frequently appears in the repertory of carols from Lovistea, at Ciunget, Clocotici, Boisoara and Bumbuiesti.
We can notice ab intio, as a general fact for the whole Romanian repertory of group caroling, that Jesus is baptised right after his birth and not when he comes to maturity, as the Canonic Gospels teach us.
In this order, the folklore texts of baptism emphasize digressions from the „right learning” but also enough assimilations of it.
It has been noticed in specilized literature that the folklore text in question mentions all the three Christian manners of expressing baptism comprised in The New Testament: The baptism of John, the baptism of Christ and the Christian Baptism. Type 173 reffers especially to the Baptism of Jesus, but, briefly, it reffers to the other ones, too.
The carol of Lovistea does not insist on developing some theological truths but on the effects that the baths in the three sacramental substances have on Jesus. This wș we do not exclude the posibility of storing in the carol some information regarding old rituals of Judaic origin for purifying the new born child and also information of different origins.
It’s good to remember, from this perspective, that the cult ortodox tradition, took over from byzantin influences rituals and prșs that were taking place at the main baptism. These purifing preparations which implied both the baby and the mother, which were organized on the 1st, the 8th and on the 40th dș after birth, can be considered as steps and wșs towards Sacraments just as the climbing of John or of Mary with the baby in her arms, both encountered in the carol, can only have purifing and initiating purposes.
We consider this type of carol as a model of what cultural traditional syncretism means. Let us not forget that also the purification and initiation prșs were an important part of Egyptian and Graeco-Roman cults, with special sendings to other religions of misteries. Later on, The Holly Parents, dogmatics and Christian theology were persuading over the complexity of puryfication idea in Christian religion opposite to the other religions of misteries, wheree rituals such as puryfication had a formal character.
As we were sșing, the carol of baptism in the repertories of Lovistea does not remain unaffected by the evangelical truths. These truths appear especially at the level of some archaic symbols:”scutacelul de bumbacel” (white clothes for baptism) and „pastorul” (the bundle) of flowers from the apple tree that appear at the Early Christians’ baptism rituals.
We can appreciate that the man of the first Christian centuries was dedicated more to action, to living in/by ritual just like the traditional of the folklore culture, than to dogmatic meditation, more to ritual action than to contemplative. Jesus Himself advised people to take action because, during those hard times, taking action meant lively adhesion not only acceptance.
The real dogmatic meanings that we can discern from the carol of Baptism find their origin in the Facts and in Paul’ Epistles, and also in the Christian hymnology.
In our paper, we have tried to suggest that the folklore text of God’s Baptism managed to keep accros the time many aspects, both ritualic and dogmatic, symbolic of the archaic Christian Baptism.
For didactical reasons we need to synthesize: time and place of doing the Sacrament (Jordan, rivers, night), in Ispas, Thursdș, congregation meaning and Communion meaning (Koinonia) of this, purifing and energetic symbolism of water, baptism as Christianization, relation between the intiatic and the sanctioned Sacraments (Baptism, anoint, Eucharist), their union, the idea of salvation through them.
Key words: Romanian carols, Lovistea, baptism, anointing.
LE MUSÉE D’ETHNOGRAPHIE ROUMAINE DE VAL DAVID – CANADA
Les communautés des roumains établis en Canada se remarque aussi par l’intérêt envers la conservation de leur identité. Le musée d’ethnographie roumaine de Val David, Canada, en est un bel exemple. Image d’une matrice culturelle, modus vivendi et, pourquoi pas, un harmonieux moyen de communication avec le pșs d’adoption, il représente, selon le témoignage des fondateurs mêmes, «un petit coin de la Roumanie».
Key words: Canada, l’identité Roumaine, patrimoine culturel, objets-symbole.
L’HISTOIRE D‘UNE FAUSSE FOLIE – L’AMOUR COMME DERIVATION DU CONCEPT ( DON QUICHOTTE )
Tout le long de la tradition des interprétations de Don Quichotte, la pièce de base dans l’attention de toutes les critique et les interprètes a été la folie réelle du personnage. On doit remarquer que les quelques tendances autour du refus de cette perspective n’aient pas réussi s’imposer.
Dans l’étude L’histoire d‘une fausse folie. L’amour comme dérivation du concept; Don Quichotte- on considère le problème d’une toute autre perspective: la folie simulée. Par la mise en scène de la folie par don Quichotte, toute la lecture du roman devient complètement philosophique, et son interprétation dans la clef de la normalité / anormalité – vétuste.
Tout ce qui se passe dans le roman –une fois adoptée la perspective de la mise en scène de la folie – passe au-delà de la simple observation d’une narration. L’idée philosophique c’est le néant de l’existence et l’attitude face à lui.
Parce qu’on n’accepte pas l’enterrement dans le néant – le seul absolu de l’existence – on fait recours à la tactique du divertissement pascalien, c’est-à-dire à la construction d’un type de divertissement absolu: la folie.
Key words: don Quixote, Dulcinea, madness, concept.
THE MYTHANALYSIS OF ORPHEU’S COMPLEX
In order to underline the importance of the mythanalytic method as a fundament of the anthropology of imaginative, we focus on the mythanalysis of Orpheu’s complex. We use the notion of complex in Jung’s acception, as a constellation of asso¬ciations, grouped around a main element, affectively marked. Following Durand’s thesis about mythanalysis we try to mark out the mythems which forms the myth of Orpheus, as the great redundancies that constitutes the systematic key or the verbal one. That is wș, we are following the philosophical, theological, literary and musical variations of this myth.
Key words: mythanalysis, Orpheu’s complex, redundancies, mythems.
A QUICK APPROACH TO GIORDANO BRUNO’S MAGICAL THOUGHT
Serban Patrascu, Ana Maria Cinca
The authors proceed to a complex analysis of Giordano Bruno’s magical thought by considering his work as an authentic Renaissance turning point who created an open universe. In his world, epistemology, ontology, mnemonics, magic, mathematics, politics and logic dynamically collide in an unique and coherent system. From this point of view, Giordano Bruno’s magical thought maps out important political outcomes: according to Nolan, the magician himself possesses a well-described action domain, especially the social and political sphere.
In Giordano Bruno’s field of vision, the society, the individual and nature are guided by „erotic impulses“, all all of them being linked themselves in the so-called Great Chain of Being.
Key words: Thomas Kuhn, Gaston Bachelard, paradigms, epistemological break.
LOGIQUE DE LA RÉSONANCE – UN PROJET UTOPIQUE OU UN NOUVEAU PARADIGME DE LA CONNAISSANCE?
Docteur en médecine, șant des remarquables résultats scientifiques dans sa profession, Stefan Odobleja est arrivé à la conclusion que la réversibilité et la consonance sont des principes universels, constitutifs pour la structure élémentaire de toute la réalité. Essșant les mettre en évidence dans les différents domaines de la connaissance, Odobleja aspire à connaître les derniers fondements de l’ordre universel. En même temps, il veut obtenir leur control, pour perfectionner leur fonctionnement et pour leur donner une conséquente orientation dans le profit de l’homme. De cette façon, Odobleja arrive à une conception philosophique pas très complexe mais d’une certaine ampleur qu’il expose dans l’œuvre Psychologie consonantiste, publié en 1938 à Paris, où il énonce la première théorie générale de la cybernétique. Le noyau de cette théorie étant la logique, Odobleja s’est efforcé pendant les décennies suivantes à édifier une logique en tant que science de la pensée, capable à dévoiler ses mécanismes de fonctionnement, de sorte qu’on peut la reproduire également dans une manière naturelle et dans une manière artificielle, sans lui affecter la spontanéité et la créativité. Cette logique a été nommée par Odobleja logique de la résonance et pour sa construction il en a appelé à toutes les sciences, tendant vers une connaissance essentielle et universelle. Si en tant que mathesis universalis la logique de la résonance semble à être une utopie, en tant que méthode elle peut très bien fonctionner comme modèle cognitif capable à suggérer des collaborations très vastes et des grandes synthèses entre les domaines de la connaissance, qui peuvent engendrer des sciences nouvelles, réellement intégrateurs.
Key words: condition humaine, sens de la vie, crise existentiale, existence véritable.
THOMAS KUHN AND GASTON BACHELARD. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH
Thomas Samuel Kuhn was one of the most important philosophers of his time and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science.. Of the five books and countless articles he published, Kuhn’s most renowned work is The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Initially published as a monography in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, it was published as a book by the University of Chicago Press in 1962.
In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn paints a picture about the development of science. Throughout thirteen succint chapters, Kuhn argued that science is not a steady, cumulative acquisition of knowledge. According to his opinions, the development of a science is not uniform but has alternating ”normal” and ”revolutionary” phases, science develops by the addition of new truths to the stock of old truths, or the increasing approximation of theories to the truth, and in the odd case, the correction of past errors. Such progress might accelerate in the hands of a particularly great scientist, but progress itself is guaranteed by the scientific method.The book has also generated a good deal of controversy, and many of Kuhn’s ideas have been powerfully challenged. Although critics chided him for his imprecise use of the term, Kuhn was responsible for popularizing the term paradigm, which he described as essentially a collection of beliefs shared by scientists, a set of agreements about how problems are to be understood.
Gaston Bachelard was one of the most prestigious philosophers of French. He is widely regarded as a major figure in the twentieth century scientific thought and literary criticism. Bachelard regarded knowledge as a result of the interaction between reason and experience. He rejected the notion of the empirical world as entirely random or senseless. At the same time he rejected the Cartesian idea that the larger view of reality is preordained and progressively uncovered through the accumulation of new scientific facts. Bachelard argued against Auguste Comte’s positivism, which considered science as a continual progress, that it had been superseded by such scientific developments as the theory of Relativity, which demonstrated the discontinuous nature of history of sciences. Through his concept of «epistemological break», Bachelard underlined the discontinuity at work in the history of sciences. For this reason, he was a tough critic of Émile Meyerson, who supported a continuous view of the history of science. He showed that the new theories integrated old ones in a new paradigm, changing the meaning of concepts.
Key words: Thomas Kuhn, Gaston Bachelard, paradigms, epistemological break.
THE TEACHER AND THE RELIGION CLASS (STATUS, ROLE, EVALUATION OF THE RELIGION CLASSES, EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES)
This abstract represents most of the final study represented by the author in the form of some conclusions. In this analysis the role characteristics of religion teacher are emphasised as they come out from the points of view expressed by the teachears of religion, participating at the four focus groups. In most of the situations the teachers have mentioned that their main role is to get the children ”close” to the Christian orthodox faith of its main rituals.
The role of the religion teacher is strictly related to what he/she is teaching, namely the religion teacher should be important in school because religion should be very important here. The role of the religion teacher and the role of the discipline itself is ”to form characters and not only to make moral religious education” and the teachers try, besides passing on certain the religious knowledge, in order to promote the Christian morality in the behaviour of the pupils. The religion teacher has the role to ”train” and ”contributes to the personality construction” of the pupils. This characteristic is ment also for every teacher and for this reason they need ”permanent self training”.
The objectives of the religion teachers, according to the opinion expressed by some of them, refer to the entire life period because in all this time the teacher works with the soul of the children aiming to a long time period of finalisation. On one hand the need to communicate of the pupils is obvious their attempt to find people who would respond to their daily troubles and on the other hand the lack of the specialists who would take on such a task in almost all the schools it seeams that the religion teachers has taken on most of the time such a role and in this process of getting close and communicating the teachers have the suplementary opportunity to contribute to the training and modelling the personality of the pupils. It is apreciated that the effort of the religion teachers is bigger and mșbe, and even the results of their work are less satisfactory when the first contact of the pupil with the object of study takes place later in the bigger classes and that happens with thouse children who didn`t receive a religious education in the family.
The difficulty of exercising the role also increases for the religion teacher when the child receives an incompatible education with the Christian morality or the family environment is inadequate for a normal developement. Certain characteristics of the environment in todș society increase the difficulty of training the personality of the pupil seems that in a particular case, at the art highschools exercising the role of religion teacher, records a simultaniously increased value with bigger expectations from the pupils.
The participants at the focus group have asseesed the religion classes mostly by evaluating the schedule for this object and in a certain wș by evaluting the wș in which the discipline is perceived by the pupils, the parents and the colegues. Certain teachers consider the schedule very „loaded” with themes that lead to ”intelectualisation” of the discipline transmiting more information but leaving less space to respond to the problems and the troubles of the child to the requirements of the reality. Such an appreciation is linked to the fact that the teachers perceive the dialogue with the pupils with subjects of the modern life as a role task. It is appreciated that the schedule should be differentiated according to the age and the needs of information and training the possibility to receive and in this purpose the themes should be more accesible according to their possiblity of understanding.
The wș in which the religion teacher relates with the children and colegues is influenced by the role structure of the religion teacher and by the fact that he is ”focusing” during the classes not only on transmiting the information but on spiritually ”shaping” the pupils. Assesing the class has as a strtong point this special type of relationship with the pupil which is expecting from the teacher certain answers to ”his questions” On the other hand it’s appreciated that the pupils want a religion class because it gives them a safe wș to communicate. Children show a lot of availability for the religion classes when these are responding to their needs. The expectation are great from the religion class especially related to the need, to satisfy the need to satisfy the communiation hunger in the lack of a real dialogue partners in school and outside of it; the class proves to be insufficiently and the classic system of reward seems to be behind the times considering the requirements of the religion class are great although different in gymnasium and highschool. Valuing the role and the object of the religion teacher is determinated in a certain measure by personal charactheristics. It seeams that youth represents something that atracts the pupils because they prefer the teachers more close to their age and the ”appearance” their preferences and the wș they get dressed represent an advantage, maintaining a close relationship opening a dialogue availabillity to understand their problems to participate at their activities are considered qualities.
The pupils tresure the teachers which allow them to choose for a certain conduct. It seems that the evaluation of the educational process at the religion class usually done by giving marks is influencing the relationships of the religion teachers with the pupil,s the colegues and even with the parents.
Generally the participants at the focus groups have appreciated that eventhough they are extremly careful at the wș they give their marks trying not to introduce new elements of stress through it, looking for solutions to check and separate among the pupils which will advantage them they still receive opinions from the colegues the principal teachers and even parents on the wș they give their marks asking for bigger marks as a wș to motivate the participation to the religion classes.
The interventions of the participants at the focus groups about the system of evaluation for the pupis at the religion class were very vivid presenting more options: the classic system of giving marks should be replaced and new wș of assesment should be found such as participating and not receiving marks for it. But there were many who were against eliminating the system of giving marks thinking that in this wș the authority of the teacher would be gone.
It was also appreciated that not giving marks would affect the discipline. In fact most of the opinions expressed by the partipants at the focus groups were leading to the idea that any significant differentiation of the wș in which the system of evaluation of the religion classes in comparison with the other disciplines creates the idea that this discipline is discriminated starting with the 1990`s and avoiding give marks would increase the discrimination. According to the perception of the participants at the focus groups, sometimes the lack of interest of certain pupils for the religion classes mostly of the teenagers comes from” their wish to live their youth and eventough they know the requirements of a moral and religious life they push this period of turning back to God towards maturity. And according to another opinion a certain rejection was because of the relatively recent reinsteitment of the discipline in the Romanian school in comparison with other disciplines and the children were not used to its existance.
The complexity of some inadequate themes for their age or an inadequate presentation style not responding to their capacities of receiving creates difficulties to the teachers not only in their relationships with the pupils but also with certain parents which notice the great efort that their children should make in order to understand the theme and the support materials for it. The teachers have made certain suggestions ment to contribute to a better object achivement of this discipline also ment to increase its fame aiming at thouse disfunctional elements namely aiming to correct the limits emphasised during the disscutions, namely to diminish the inadequate report between the informational characther of the classes (imposed by the actual requirements) and the training and personality shaping needs which implies to possibility to guide the pupils by using examples taken from daily life experience, coming from certain known situations listening to them talking to them according to their most immediate needs and their troubles to promptley respond to their expectations to solve certain problem with which they confront themselfs with and to which they don`t find a support for.
For such a purpose it seems that the time is not enough as one of the teachers appreciates” the religion class seems insufficiently as time. On the other hand the school schedule is loaded. If it would be up to me I would introduce in the schedule as many notions from the New Testament as possible. Knowledge about the facts and the miracles of Christ as many themes as possible about the morale presented into a more attractive and practicle style to put the child into a situation to experiment in real situations”.
One of the suggestions on how to dothe religion class is to satisfy the ”curiosity” of the pupils their interest for certain themes and this is why the concept of ecumenism both in concept and reality should find a place in the schedule of religion classes. Some of the participants at the focus groups have refered at a wș in which the Church could support the religion teachers to fulfil their task to inform and train and eventually to gain the support of the parents in their effort to educate namely to reactivate the cathehetic teachings there where they are not held anymore as a tool that would help training the children and the parents all together and on the other hand to maintain an efficient relationship among the teacher, the school, the priest and the church there is a need for a more accesible language more interesting themes for a cathehetic instruction at the morning lithurgy or at the evening service knowing that this is when the number of the participants is bigger.
Another suggetion of the teachers was refering at the problem of freel participating to the religion classes according to both individual and family option for a certain religious cult as the law requires.They were thinking that these religion classes could take place in school similary to the other disciplines the pupil or the family choosing a certain cult and when the family declares itself an atheist family the pupil could participate to the classes of religion history or at any other type of class such as religious culture which would not interfere in any wș with a certain church.
The special role of the religion teacher in school comes from his double institutional ”appartenence”: church and school ( the teacher feels moraly related to the church his training and his mission to send a religious through message to those which he is working with and he also feels related to the school on an administrative level which implies to respect the pedagogical normes imposed by the hierarchic structure of the school, a.s.o.) and consequently by assuming increased responsabilities in training and shaping the personality of the pupils compared with those of other teachers. It seeams that the school practice has imposed and attached to the role of the religion teacher other requirements ( besides those that come directly from his quality quakity of educator and promoter of Christian faith) related to satisfying certain expectations of the pupils:communication response to their daily troubles moral support and even help in emergency situations.
The teachers try to satisfy these requirements also by extracuricular activities which are assumed and appreciated as a part of the role but sometimes being asigned through administrative measures since: ”it`s not know to whom this responsability belongs”. In this situation it seems unnatural that sometimes the teachers ”perceive” their role as insufficiently valued.
Key words: status, role, religion teacher, extracuricular activities.
TENDENCIES AND MUTATIONS IN TODș’S DEMOGRAPHIC BEHAVIOR
In every country, the durable socioeconomic development depends, mostly, on the efficiency of forming and using the human potential. In the last decades, România faced up with many demographic problems, such as the decrease of the birth rate, the aging of population, the migration, all these leading to a multitude of social, economic, political and unfavorable cultural consequences which require efficient measures for stabilizing the situation.
By promoting the currently demographic situation, its development tendencies and the arguing of decisions which could ameliorate this situation, are primordial tasks for the specialists from various areas of expertise: political, economic, sociologic, demographic, medical, psychological and others. Todș we can sș the our country’s future, its durable development rely, mainly, on how the demographic problems will be solved, on the moves will make in order to attenuate the consequences of population’s ageing.
The decreasing of population in most of the countries can be explained through the continuous lowering of the birth rate. In Europe, the fertility indexes have been established at a level that does not assure the simple reproduction of the population (less than 1.5 children per woman), or at a very low level (less than 1.3 children per woman). These indexes are determined by the choice that thousands of married couple made referring to having a child. In the countries with transition to the market economy, including România, this choice can be explained through the material difficulties, the reduced possibilities of the families when dealing with the children’s growing and education. The low indexes of the birth rate in Europe lead not only to the continuous reducing of the population number, but also to the decreasing of the number and to the ageing of the labor power in the nearest future, which is very important. These structural changes lead to the considerable growing of the demography, increase the countries’ expenses for pșing the pensions, the development of the social protection system, the protection of the public health.
In the European space can be noticed profound changes within the familial behavior of the population. România does not represent an exception. The individuals for whom these transformations were visible are the thousands of persons and married couples, which take important decisions regarding the marriage or the partnership, the birth of children inside or outside a family, the decision of becoming or not becoming a parent, or that of divorcing or keeping a relation going. Often, these decisions are taken under the influence of some economic, social and cultural aspects of the place they belong to. Nowadșs, can be noticed a diminishing of marriage and birth rate, a growth regarding the family instability, the unmarried couples and the extra-conjugal births. It is obvious that these changes significantly influence the dynamic of the demographic processes. The delș of marriage and of having babies is one of the main causes for decreased fertility and the continuous growing number of mono-parental families requires supplementary measures in the plan of the social protection and the guarantying of equal chances regarding the growth and education of the children from both complete and incomplete families.
At present, many European countries are concerned of elaborating improvement measures on the subject of the demographic situation. It is understandable that România has its specific features, making impossible the exact appliance of other’s countries experience in solving the demographic problems. It is required the elaboration of some efficient politic measures on the basis of the scientific studies and on the prognoses of population’s evolution.
Key words: demographic behaviour, social changes, tendencies, contemporary socie.
LE SENTIMENT DE L’APPARTENANCE À LA COMMUNAUTÉ À TRAVERS L’EGLISE. LES EMIGRANTS ROUMAINS DE BELGIQUE
Le début de l’émigration en Belgique a connu une voie sinueuse, assez souvent parsemée avec des obstacles. La recherche spirituelle dans une église a apporté un souffle d’espoir à tous ceux qui étaient partis de la Roumanie à cause du régime totalitaire et qui avaient demandé asile dans le pșs d’adoption.
Ainsi, vu le fait qu’en Belgique le catholicisme représente la religion principale, le premier prêtre roumain catholique était-il venu de Paris afin de tenir les messes dans la langue roumaine au début des années 1970.
Après quelques années, un nouveau prêtre orthodoxe est venu du Roumanie. Son but: réunir une petite communauté roumaine des chrétiens orthodoxes, dépourvue de tout service religieux. A la longue, le régime communiste de la Roumanie a été changé tandis que le nombre des Roumains établis en Belgique a accru constamment. Aujourd’hui, il est le signe d’une forte communauté marquée aussi par une certaine diversité confessionnelle.
En guise de conclusion, on peut dire que les paroissiens roumains, n’importe leur appartenance religieuse, n’ont pas perdu la liaison intime avec la Roumanie dont la dimension religieuse fut conservée en dépit toutes les difficultés.
Key words: church, emigration, affiliation, community.
SCHIMBARI ÎN STRUCTURA ETNICA A POPULATIEI URBANE ÎNTRE ANII 1930-2002 ÎN SUD-VESTUL OLTENIEI
Costela Iordache, Liliana Popescu
Pe baze statistice este descrisa evolutia populatiei zonei cercetate, precum si cresterea sau descresterea numerica a nationalitatilor minoritare. Analiza structurii etnice, în perioada 1930-2002, releva caracterul predominant al românilor, evolutia numerica progresiva a acestora si regresul înregistrat de celelalte etnii, cu exceptia rromilor.
Key words: changes, ethnic structure, urban population, Oltenia.
THE HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL PROBLEMS OF THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD
Dumitru Otovescu, Cristina Otovescu-Frasie
The differences that exist between the modern states, regarding the efficiency of the economical activity and richness, are influencing the differences between big human collectivities, as for the human development. The problem of human rights represents one of the main important subjects of the political life and is related to the evolution of the global problems of the mankind (security, peace, development). At a global level, the defending of the national, regional and world security became a fundamental and a top priority problem, in a period in which there are still present the nuclear danger and the international terrorism.
Keywords: legislation, human rights, human development, global problem.
BUNURILE EXTRA COMMERCIUM SI PROTECTIA ACORDATA CONFORM BREVIARIO ALARCIANA – DE BONIS VIVENTIS
Magdolna Sic (Szucs)
În timpul perioadei romane postclasice, gasim cazuri specifice de res extra commercium. Din cauza unor motive economice, politice sau religioase, bunurile care ar fi putut face obiectul negocierii, datorita caderii Imperiului Roman, au fost excluse din circuitul comercial prin restrictii de înstrainare sau prin mijloace de control specifice. Bunurile in usu quotidiano sunt cele necesare vietii (supravietuirii) si bunuri ale persoanelor în viata, care nu reprezinta doar mostenirea sa viitoare, ci si bunuri necesare asigurarii propriei supravietuiri si, în multe cazuri, supravietuirea întregii familii.
Key words: Diocletian, Justian, Lex Romana visigotorum, bonos mores.
THE RECEPTION IN THE CALIMACH CODE AND IN CARADJEA’S CODE OF THE ROMAN LAW REGARDING THE LEGITIMATE PACTS, WITH A SPECIAL VIEW OVER DONATION AND COMPROMISE
The first section is dedicated to some general considerations regarding the pacts. In the second, the third and the fourth sections are presented the roman principles of donation and their reception in the Calimach Code (1817) in Moldavia and in the Caradjea’s Code (1818) in Wallachia. The fifth section presents the regulation of the compromise pact during the emperor Justinian, through the revaluation of the most important roman sources in this matter (Iustiniani Digesta, 4, 8 de receptis qui arbitrium receperunt ut sentemtiam dicant and Codex repetitae paraelectionis, 2, 56 de receptis arbitris). In the last section, after a few historical and terminological considerations, are emphasized the great number of recepted roman elements in the two Romanian codes from the beginning of the 19th century, done with the occasion of the regulation of the compromise or arbitrate convention.
Key words: Calimach code, Caradjea’s code, Roman law, legitimate pacts.
RES DERELICTA ÎN CODUL CIVIL CEH
Conceptia achizitionarii bunurilor res derelicta de catre stat ex lege reprezinta un model nou în comparatie cu posibilitatea dreptului natural de a se ocupa de res nullius. Dupa ce a fost introdus în sistemul legal ceh, caracteristicile sale au fost subliniate în amendamentul codului civil din 1964, adoptat în 1991. Putem presupune ca, noul cod civil va reconecta legislatia ceha la normele europene.
Key words: Roman Law, Austrian Civil Code, Res nullius, The Pandect Law.
THE FUNDAMENTAL LEGITIMACY OF ADMINISTRATION IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. A COMPARATIVE STUDY
By developing an interdisciplinary approach (characteristic to the judicial and administrative sciences), the present study focuses its attention on the European administration, especially on the French typology of administration.
The work presents aspects that related to developing the European model of the administration through the comparison study of the fundamental law – the constitution – of countries such as France, Great Britain and Germany.
Key words: administration, fundamental legitimacy, comparative perspective, Europe.
LEGE SI LITERATURA – FILOSOFIA DREPTULUI ROMAN
Maximele despre proportie sau masura, despre compensatie sau ritm sunt mai vechi decât Roma, chiar si decât Grecia. Romanii au ridicat si afirmat aceste maxime ca legi fundamentale, ce au patruns în fiecare institutie a sistemului lor juridic. Pentru ca acest principiu este o categorie a filosofiei morale, iar dreptul a fost considerat o ramura a acestei filosofii, putem spune ca legea se afla la originea filosofiei romanilor. Natura specifica a spiritului roman, a spiritului unei natiuni înzestrate cu abilitati exceptionale de creare si elaborare a legii, si-a pus amprenta asupra vietii si culturii romanilor, în special asupra literaturii lor, pe parcursul întregii lor dezvoltari sociale.
Key words: Ciciero, Ulpian, The Law of the Twelve Tables, Philosophy of Law.
SISTEMUL INTERAMERICAN AL DREPTURILOR OMULUI
Sistemul interamerican al drepturilor omului este inspirat de cel european si bazat pe doua surse juridice: Carta organizarii statelor americane si Conventia Interamericana a Drepturilor Omului. Organizatia statelor americane (O.A.S.) este o organizatie interguvernamentala. Mecanismul interamerican de protectie si promovare a drepturilor omului se constituie printr-o dubla structura institutionala: una dezvoltata dupa deciziile Cartei organizarii statelor americane si cealalta formata dupa aplicarea Conventiei Americane a Drepturilor Omului. Aceasta din urma a fost semnata la San José si confirma functiile Comisiei Interamericane a Drepturilor Omului, dând o anumita competenta si Curtii Interamericane a Drepturilor Omului cu scopul de a asigura statelor membre respectul angajamentelor acestora.
Key words: low, institutions, human rights, American system.
NEW APPROACHES IN BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
The paper attempts to provide a current perspective of Behavioural Economics, based on his history, methods and results, taking into account relations with border disciplines, but also philosophical and methodological foundations of their own. The starting point of the approach is anchored in the similarities between cognitive science, behavioural and economic development. Both of them use the same interdisciplinary approach, taking into account the reality of different perspectives and making use of a variety of methods. Moreover, there are direct links between the two research fields. The only inspiration was researching Behavioural Economics, which in turn can be seen both as a synthesis of ideas of economic origin, as well as a cognitive science. Therefore, we can define Behavioural Economics as an effort to increase the explanatory and predictive power of economic theory, providing it with the more legitimate foundation psychologically.
Keywords: behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, cognitive mechanisms, tendencies.
PRIVIRE GENERALA ASUPRA MODELELOR DE ECONOMIE COMPORTAMENTALA
Laura Giurca Vasilescu, Sorin Tudor
Economia comportamentala reprezinta un domeniu de cercetare, care studiaza bazele emotionale si sociocognitive, în vederea unei mai bune întelegeri a deciziilor economice si a manierei în care acestea afecteaza piata si alocarea resurselor. În acest context, trebuie facut apel la modele comportamentale cu scopul explicarii comportamentelor investitorilor si anomaliile pietei atunci când modelele rationale apar ca lipsite de „logica”. Cele doua parti constitutive ale economiei comportmentale sunt limitele arbitrajului (când pietele sunt ineficiente) si psihologia cognitiva. Economia comportamentala se bazeaza pe faptul ca fenomenele financiare pot fi întelese, întrebuintând modele în care unii dintre agenti nu au un comportament rational. În consecinta, prezentul studiu va încerca sa prezinte o serie de modele specifice economiei comportamentale, ce vor demonstra posibilitatea de a gândi coerent asupra procesului de fixare a pretului, tinând cont, totodata, de aspectele tipice ale comportamentului uman.
Key words: behaviour finance, models, financial phenomena, emotions.
ROMÂNIA SI UNIUNEA EUROPEANA. ANCORAREA VALORILOR ROMÂNESTI – CULTURALE, FILOZOFICE SI RELIGIOASE – LA CELE EUROPENE
Plasata adesea în sfera de interese a marilor puteri, fie ca era vorba de Bizant sau, mai târziu, în Evul Mediu, de Imperiul Otoman ori de Regatele catolice – al Poloniei si Ungariei –, precum si de Sfântul Imperiu German sau Austriac si Rusia tarista, fie Germania si Rusia comunista, România a încercat sa se integreze în spatiul euro atlantic, alegând mai degraba Vestul si refuzând Estul. Dar o cooperare, fara valori si norme de conduita comune, este posibila numai pe o scurta perioada si absolut imposibila pe un termen mai lung. Faptul ca România este singurul stat din Europa al carui nume deriva din Roma ilustreaza foarte clar originile si aspiratiile acestui popor. Românii sunt succesorii romanitatii orientale, o romanitate a carei religie este ortodoxa. Iata principala contradictie a acestui popor de origine latina, care n-a mai avut de multa vreme o legatura directa cu lumea statelor romane occidentale. Tranzitia, reforma, privatizarea etc. în perspectiva concilierii Occidentului cu Orientul în spatiul carpato-danubian nu pot avea succes pâna în momentul în care initiatorii nu vor tine seama de aceste elemente fundamentale.
Key words: limited sovereignty, democratic deficit, limitation of the national parliaments competences, the principle of subsidiarity.