REMARKS ON OFFENSIVE WEAPONS BY THE END OF THE BRONZE AGE AND EARLY IRON AGE IN SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA
South-western Romania is characterized, from the point of view of the spreading of the metal objects, by the quite clear distinction between two zones of influence: the Danube area, oriented towards the middle Danube basin and the sub-Carpathian area oriented towards the northern, trans-Carpathian zone. Along the Danube, upstream, but also in the Iron Gates area, the different types of bronze items (from all the categories mentioned above), present typological features that can also be found in the middle Danube area and further, in Central Europe. It is obvious that this phenomenon reflects the circulation of goods, including the technologic respect, but, in the same time, in a complementary reading, the circulation of mentalities, of ideas. The bronze items found in the south-Carpathian regions are obviously of Transylvanian origin. An explanation can be found in the relations involved by the phenomenon of flocks moving that constituted a permanent reality in the life of the communities from the both sides of the Meridian Carpathians. We are referring to the typological hypostases of the Reutlingen type swords and, in a smaller degree, to the celts of Transylvanian type (variant A, according to M. Rusu).
Keywords: swords, spear, daggers, south-western Romania, the end of the Bronze Age, early Iron Age.
MATTHEW 24:14: THE GLOBAL DIMENSION OF THE GOSPEL MESSAGE AND ITS ESCHATOLOGICAL MEANING
MIHAI VALENTIN VLADIMIRESCU
The dynamic aspect of Christianity implies an active preaching of the Gospel, respecting the human freedom to adhere or not to Christ’s teachings. The Christian mission cannot be considered accomplished until the Gospel is made known to all the nations. This moment, though, has, in Mt. 24:14, a shocking eschatological connotation. The present study aims to present the connection between the global dimension of the Christian message and eschatology, in the context of “Lord’s great eschatological discourse”, in chapters 24 and 25 of Matthew’s Gospel, also using the Patristic interpretations, which bring into light a multitude of nuances in Jesus’ words.
Keywords: Globalization, Universalism, Christianity, The Gospel of Matthew.
THE IMPORTANCE OF BRÂNCOVEANU STYLE IN THE ROMANIAN ECCLESIASTIC STYLE
Constantin Brâncoveanu showed great concern for building palaces and houses in different cities, on estates or near monasteries, and many of them became edifices of reference for the new emerging style. We are referring to the Brâncoveanu style that inaugurated a new phase in the history of the Romanian art. Art and culture during Constantin Brâncoveanu’s reign, had as a starting point the local tradition, to which were added foreign elements and was characterized by diversity and a high degree of artistic accomplishment.
Keywords: religious art, Brancovan style, monastic foundations, artwork.
CONTRIBUTIONS REGARDING THE TAXES PAID BY THE PARISH CLERGY IN MEDIEVAL MOLDAVIA (15TH -18TH CENTURIES)
ARCADIE M. BODALE
In the Middle Ages, the parish clergy (priests, deacons and vergers) from Moldovia had to pay various taxes to the central power, to the bishop and to the lord of the estate where the churches were. The taxes of the priests, deacons and of the verges to the hospodar were in cash, products and services. Then, the parish clergy had to pay an Episcopal fee to the bishop of the diocese. The violation of the canons was punished by the bishop. However, both the hospodars and the country gentlemen accepted exemption from taxes for the parish clergy, but these were different from village to village, from town to village, from hospodar to hospodar and from church to church. Finally, according to the rules, the parish clergy had to give to the lord of the estate the tithe. These taxes were different from one era to another and from one parish to another and the exemption from payment was allowed. However, its were much lower than other, allowing to the priests of Moldovia to gather more wealth than other peasants. This wealth causes abuses committed by the representatives of the hospodar and of the bishops, which requested the intervention of the central power.
Keywords: Moldovia, hospodar, bishops, priests, deacons, taxes.
POLITICAL POWER AND INSTRUMENTALISATION OF THE IMAGE IN THE HISTORIC SPANISH LITERATURE DURING THE REIGN OF PHILIP IV
OANA ANDREIA SÂMBRIAN
The apparition of the favourite, the king’s most trusted minister was in complete keeping with the political period overgone by Spain, after the powerful military decline suffered following the defeat of the Armada by the English in 1588. As Spain began to divide its maritime power with England, the Spanish king started to share his power with another person, his first minister, seen as a person that was helping the king to carry the burden of the reign. Hereby, we approach the construction of the image of the favourite in both Art and Literature, enhancing the power of the visual image and of the spoken word. Portraits and plays. Those were the two main instruments used by the Spanish Court in order to promote its unstained image, as the political body of the king was shown as sacred, majestic, determined, while his main attributes were charity, justice and faith.
Keywords: Spain, 17th century, the favourite, Count Duke of Olivares, instrumentalisation, image.
LA RESIDENCE PRINCIERE EN VALACHIE (1822-1828)
Les princes régnants phanariotes, à de rares exceptions, ont prêté une attention considérable aux endroits choisis en tant que résidences royales. La plupart du temps ils semblent se limiter seulement à réparer les bâtiments princières, louer d`autres édifices ou, parfois, établir leur résidence provisoire au siège des monastères et des écoles. Avec l`accession au trône du prince Grigore IV Ghica (1822-1828), la résidence royale parait regagner son importance d’autrefois. Le nouveau prince a reconstruit la résidence princière et a elévé deux nouveaux palais au Pont de Mogoşoaia et à Colentina.
Mots-cléfs: Valachie, résidence princière, politique officielle, prestige, incendie.
LES EXPLOITATIONS AGRICOLES DE LA FAMILLE MIHAIL DANS LES COMTÉS MEHEDINŢI, DOLJ ET ROMANAŢI
Dans cet article l’auteur presénte les exploitations agricoles de la famille Mihail dans les comtés de Mehedinti, Dolj et Romanați. Ils ont été établies à Craiova à la fin de quatrième décennie du XIXe siècle.
En réalisant une intense activité commerciale les représentants de cette famille réussi à amasser de grosses sommes d’argent qui a acheté plusieurs propriétés dans les comtés de l’Olténie Dolj, Gorj, Mehedinti et la Roumanie, mais aussi dans d’location Ilfov, Teleorman, Galați.
Dans le district Mehedinți ils possédaient successions Rogova, Poroina Mare et Braniște, dans le district Dolj – les successions Cernele, Troaca, Drănic, Giormane, Bârya, Bucovăț, Bodăiești et dans le district Romanați la succession Deveselu. La mort du dernier représentant de cette famille, ces propriétés ont été laissés à l’État roumain a vendu et l’argent obtenu d’établir de nombreuses écoles et bibliothèques.
Mots-clefs: les exploitations, la grande propriété, la succession, la location.
A HISTORY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS OF RÂMNICU VÂLCEA IN 1848
This article aims to offer another keylecture about a classic subject, the 1848 revolution in Wallchian urban milieu. The case study is built around editing and original documents concerning the city of Ramnicu Valcea. A careful and critical reading forces us to rethink them more carefully the revolutionary government efficiency, the support or denial of the revolutionary regime, the functioning of institutions such as National Guard or the practice of revolutionary ceremonies, helping us to eliminate stereotypes that have entered even in a contemporary urban mythology.
Keywords: social and political history, 1848 Revolution, Wallachia, Râmnic, memory.
PUBLIC LIGHTING IN THE CITY OF CRAIOVA DURING 1850-1916
In the present study, we have aimed to present the evolution of the public lighting in the city of Craiova during 1850-1916 as this publicly important issue is illustrated in the archive documents.
Keywords: lighting, public utility, city, leasing, Craiova.
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EVOLUTION OF SADOVA CROWN DOMAIN AFTER THE AGRARIAN REFORM FROM 1921
NARCISA MARIA MITU
During 1921-1948, Sadova Crown Domain known a sinuous evolution, the development periods (1921-1928; 1934-1939), alternating with the period of the world crisis (1922-1933) and the unfolding of the second world war (1940-1945). The agrarian reform from 1921 that reduced the territory of Sadova Administration Department to the surface of 4.643,50 ha, had repercussions on the personnel that had to diminish its number but also on the animate and inanimate agricultural inventory, also diminished. The preservation of the sandy lands that were refused at expropriation, determined the leadership to decide their forestation and, starting with 1934, Sadova Domain is transformed in a forestry domain.
In 1948, Sadova Administration Department and the other estates that belonged to the Crown Domain, became the state’s property.
Keywords: Crown Domain, Sadova, agrarian reform, 1921-1948, socio-economic evolution.
PORTRAITS DES EMPLOYÉS BANCAIRES DE L’OLTÉNIE AUX XXE SIÉCLE
La question de la formation des responsables de la banque était toujours à l’agenda des activités de la Banque Nationale. La préparation intellectuelle et l’expérience pratique acquise pendant leur travail dans les établissements de crédit ont permis à certains fonctionnaires de l’avance sur l’échelle hiérarchique à des postes de fonctions comptables ou gestionnaires. Avec les représentants du gouvernement central, ceux des succursales et agences de l’Olténie, la promotion de les prit de la gravité de la Banque Nationale dans les villes du royaume. On craignait notamment pour favoriser un profil de leadership de la morale particulière qui a servi l’institution et utile de les rappeler.
Mots-clefs: XXe siècle, Olténie, portrait, employé de banque.
FESTIVE AND PROPAGANDISTIC DIMENSION OF THE PLEBISCITE FROM FEBRUARY 24, 1938. CASE STUDY: OLTENIA
The article has an analyze of “festive debut” of King Carol II’s monarchic authority regime, focused on historical region of Oltenia. The analysis of archive documents, used to accomplish our goal, prove the fact that the plebiscite from February 24, 1938, was organized and deployed in a similar way to national holidays, and the fact that the days dedicated to preparation and deployment of the event (February 22-23) have been dedicated by the power’s representatives to an intense propaganda, exclusive, in favor of King Carol II, his government, led by Miron Cristea and to the new appointed regime. Also, reveals the fact that, beyond the fabricated enthusiasm, caused by the fear of repercussions or opportunism, a big part of the population showed a real enthusiasm, powered by the hope of a better life, by the trust in the measures taken, over the time, for the country by the Romanian Dynasty.
Keywords: plebiscite, Constitution, holiday, King Carol II, propaganda.
EVOLUTION DU POTENTIEL MILITAIRE DE LA ROUMANIE ENTRE 1934-1939 DANS LE CONTEXTE EUROPEEN DE L’EPOQUE
La politique extérieure roumaine dans le contexte européen de ce temps a évolué en étroite liaison avec les tendances des relations internationales, mais aussi avec les tendances militaires. Les violations des dispositions militaire des traités de Versailles ont poussé les organes politiques et militaires de Bucarest à accorder leur attention à la formation militaire et à l’équipement. La situation européenne des années 1934-1939 a poussé le gouvernement de notre pays à prendre des mesures visant à améliorer le facteur militaire, notamment pourmieux équiper le versant ouest de la frontière.
Mots-cléfs: les achats militaires, mesures, opérations, État-major général.
OUTLIVING KHRUSCHEV. GHEORGHE GHEORGHIU-DEJ S CULT OF PERSONALITY IN ROMANIA
The evolution of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej’s leadership, his national-Stalinist orientation in the 1960’s, and Nicolae Ceauşescu’s hybrid of hard Stalinism and nationalism can be better analyzed through a view of this period of the life of the Romanian Communist Party.
Keywords: Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Khrushchev, personality cult, secret speech.
THE MISSILES FROM ROMANIA: A DANGER FOR THE SOVIET UNION AND THE WESTERN EUROPEAN STATES?
Being aware of the fact that allocating new financial resources for endowing the Romanian Army would endanger Romania’s objectives for industrial development, Nicolae Ceauşescu opposed to Moscow’s requests for maintaining the rhythm of modernizing the armament and combat technique belonging to the Romanian military unit’s endowment, as well as for Romanian troops to participate at the joint military training programs, that took places in different states members of the Warsaw Pact.
On the same time, Nicolae Ceauşescu expressed his opinion and acted for copying all types of weapons, ammunitions and industrial technique in order to develop the Romanian military industry.
Keywords: Bonn, Bucharest, Ceauşescu, communism, Der Speigel, missiles, Moskow, Romania, Warsaw Treaty Organization.
NICOLAE CEAUŞESCU AND THE EXTERNAL DEBT OF ROMANIA
In 1982, Nicolae Ceauşescu decided that Romania’s external debts should be rapidly liquidated, the import industrial and agricultural products should be reduced as much as possible, and a programme of rationing the basic food consumption be put into practice.
The inefficiently spending of the amounts obtained from taxes paid by the population generated an ample crisis within the financing system of national and regional projects, and the central authorities had to gradually reduce the funds allotted to various local public works. Unfortunately, the funds reduction did not succeed in taking the communist regime out of the financial crisis it was going through in the early of the 1980s.
Keywords: Ceauşescu, Citroën, communism, COMECON, Dacia 1300, external debt, Renault, Romania.
HOMONYMY RELATION IN HYDRONYMY
Defined as the same phonetic body which has two different referents, homonymy led to conflicting opinions in lexicography. The controversies are related both to the place that the lexicography occupies at the level of the language (central or peripheral) and to the way in which it influences or not its evolution.
In this article, the analysis focuses on the study of homonymy at the level of the rivers names in our country. The final conclusion is that the name of water, villages, cities, mountains, etc. does not have a body of appellations used only to designate objects in the field. Between them (but also between them and vocabulary) there is a permanent transfer of words.
Keywords: homonymy, names of waters, frequency, transfer.
EMINESCU ABOUT TUDOR VLADIMIRESCU’S REVOLUTION
Considered by N. Iorga as an authentic historical past ruled, interposing Romanian historical events in world history, Eminescu also stopped to the Tudor Vladimirescu’s era. He shows, with arguments, that Tudor Vladimirescu’s movement was a revolution and not a rebellion, as Roller and proletcult historians called it and it was directed not only against foreign elements but also on some local landowners (local) who did not want a Romanian state with institutions organized by liberal principles. Mastered all historical sources, Eminescu notes the positive role played by Tudor Vladimirescu and his revolution in history.
Keywords: Eminescu, Tudor Vladimirescu, The 1821 revolution, national state.
NATIONAL VS UNIVERSAL: AN APORETIC ATTEMPT IN THE TEATHER OF ŞTEFAN PETICĂ
The first Romanian declaired symbolist, Ştefan Petică is the author of several cycles of lyrics, but also of a few plays. His work as a playwright is less known and this paper is a short excursus through his activity as a dramatist. In his case, drama is the result of a painful division between the powerful temptation to devote his life to the febrile intellectual search in order to achieve a high ideal and between the tendency to stay apart from a contemplation which is free of the anguish of the absolute.
He left us plays containing impressive moments related to the lives of the yeomen and peasants from a wonderful atmosphere of legend, and these are unique moments in our dramaturgy through this new gender of theater they bring.
The presence of Ştefan Petică in the Romanian writing and thinking represented a whole new orientation of our culture. His intellectual attitude so aristocratic in content and amplitude and so original as a thematic approach within the theater was demonstrated through the cult for the Romanian soul, freed of all the misleading waves. This makes the writer’s personality a polyhedral one, which escapes to any common labelling.
Keywords: theater, Romanian Symbolism, Ştefan Petică, rural world.
BELIEFS, CUSTOMS AND MAGICAL PRACTICES WHEN BUILDING A HOUSE
In the traditional world, when building a house and the household dependencies, the man practiced a wide range of habits. In order to guarantee the security and the tranquility, he always made allowance for the elements of nature, but he also used “magical” elements.
The construction rituals cycle consists of: the choosing of the house placement, the building materials, the masons, the effective build, the finishing of the edifice and the moving into the new house. Each stage is accompanied by different practices and customs.
Keywords: dwelling, tradition, building rites, customs, magical practices.
THE CONCEPTION REGARDING THE LIGHT IN THE CHRISTIAN AND POPULAR TRADITION IN OLTENIA
That who bears Jesus Christ in his soul, that who takes Him as role model and lives according to His prophecies, is accompanied permanently by the pastoral light, both on earth and in heaven.
The souls of the people who lived in faith and truth become light, as Jesus Christ Himself said: “You are the light of the world” (Mathew 5, 14). From this light, Jesus prophesied that the human kind would receive light: “Let your light so shine before men” (Mathew 5, 16).
Keywords: pastoral light, candles’ light, soul, faith, prayer.
ÉROS ET LOGOS – SEPARATION ET IDENTITE OU COMMENT ON PEUT PARLER DE L’AMOUR ABSTRAIT
Cette étude représente une introduction à la manière dont, tout au long de l’histoire culturelle européenne, deux concepts-clés, l’Éros et le Logos, ont évolué d’une position primaire, quand ils paraissaient séparés, à une position secondaire, vers laquelle ils ont évolué en s’explicitant et en se consolidant réciproquement dans une réalité courante, l’amour.
L’idée principale de l’étude est représentée par la tentative de montrer comment, dans le préambule des réalités bien définies – quelles que soient celles-ci – il y a quelque chose de différent qui les précède. Dans ce cas, l’essai vise l’Éros (l’amour courant) et comment il est à retrouver dans son préambule le Logos (la parole).
La dernière partie de l’étude est représentée par la démonstration – entreprise à des cas célèbres d’amour, illustrés dans des chefs-d’œuvre de la culture européenne – du fait que, au long de tout cas d’amour connu, celui-ci ne peut s’en passer de la parole ou, à la limite, de l’attention aux circonstances extérieures à l’amour.
Mots-clés: altérité, abstraction, preparatio, manifestatio, parole.
THE CONSTITUTION OF CRITERION INSIDE THE ROMANIAN INTERWAR SCHOOL
This text tries to underline the relationship between Nae Ionescu and his outstanding students (Mircea Vulcănescu, Mircea Eliade, Emil Cioran and Constantin Noica), as the major possibility to understand the constitution of Criterion as the European intellectual group in the modern Romanian cultural history. The radiography of this relationship expresses some important features: the existence of the connaturality between the master and his disciples, the drawing up of a major coordinates inside this School – organics, authenticity, personalization –, the sublimation of a raw pattern of thinking and living. The cartography of this pattern incarnated by Name Ionesco as a teacher and master of this interwar young generation represents the comprehensive key of Criterion, being the main presupposition of interpretation the function mechanism of this group.
Keywords: Criterion, Nae Ionescu, intellectual, group, master, disciple, connaturality, thinking, school.
THE POSSIBILITIES OF A CUMULATIVE ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
The possibilities of a cumulative argument in favour of the existence of God. When more arguments uphold each other reciprocally, the conclusion of these is in fact much stronger. Certain recent critiques of the ontological argument ignored the global context in which this has to be regarded. The arguments must form a network in which each argument stands for itself and it is also upholded by the others. This does not imply the fact that the arguments may not function independently, but when involved in a cumulative case they constitute an even more convincing frame for Hartshone’s neoclassical theism.
Keywords: God, existence, cumulative argument, a priori arguments.
ABOUT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NIETZSCHE’S AND HEIDEGGER’S ONTOLOGICAL DIFFERENCE
Through his studies, collected in volumes of Nietzsche, Heidegger M. is, we might say, the thinker who established, in spite of pride and demands of our times, meaning contemporary reading of Friedrich Nietzsche. In addition to this already known, is also well known, in terms of M. Heidegger’s thinking, the role that the concept of “ontological difference” played in the works, one so important that could not be present in Heidegger’s interpretations of Nietzsche’s thought.
In what follows, I briefly what is the significance that the concept of “ontological difference” has in Heidegger’s thinking, what role it plays in Nietzsche’s thinking and that is legitimate in this sense, to understand the latter from the meaning of the first.
Keywords: ontological difference, being, thinking, overcoming metaphysics.
LEGAL REGULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL PAY PRINCIPLE IN ROMANIA
ROXANA RADU, CEZAR AVRAM
Equal pay principle has its foundation in the principle of equal treatment. Romanian law contains some explicit reference to this principle, but it is not detailed enough. The legal vacuum favorises certain subjective interpretations, leaving it up to the employer and, in case of work litigation, at the discretion of the judge, to determine compliance with or breach of the principle of equal remuneration, on the basis of the evidence in question. Study of the legal provisions and the application thereof by the Romanian courts is intended to highlight legislative deficiencies in order to be corrected by the legislator.
Keywords: equality, law, remuneration, treatment, work.
THE COMMUNAL NOTARY (COMMUNAL SECRETARY): NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK OF A MODERN INSTITUTION, 1864-1940
DIETMAR MÜLLER, ANDREI FLORIN SORA
This study presents the legislative framework of the office of communal secretary (communal notary) in Romania between 1864 and 1940. The law from 1864, which can be considered the birth of Romanian modern local administration, created a local employee, the communal secretary. Although, at the beginning, the communal secretary has had as principal duties only to assist and write the decisions of communal councils, gradually he received more attributions and became an important figure in the rural community. In 1908, the communal notary (known as communal secretary between 1864-1887 and 1904-1908) became a state employee, an agent of the central power with a wide range of competences. This administrative transformation is not only a sign of state centralization, but also for its bureaucratization and the beginning of the professionalization of public employees. After the World War I, the Law for administrative unification from 1925 introduced the communal notary from the Old Kingdom (1908 law) in all new Romanian provinces, with some influences from the Transylvanian institution of the communal notary. An important subject of discussion in Greater Romania was the request of communal notaries to receive non administrative attributions such as drafting notary documents or land registry entries.
Keywords: public administration, local government, public employees, communal secretary.
THE CONTROL EXERTED BY THE ROMANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT
In our system of constitutional law the control of laws constitutionality is exercised by a jurisdictional body especially established for that purpose, the Constitutional Court; the control can be achieved both before the law promulgation, following an almost purely political complaint – the only exception is the Ombudsman – and after the law promulgation when – by stating the same single exception of the Ombudsman that may refer directly to the Constitutional Court – is made only by way of exception.
The control of law constitutionality represents – as shown above – the main task of the Constitutional Court but not its only one, as we shall further analyze. The Constitutional Court’s jurisdiction is governed by Article 146 of the Constitution whose provisions are incorporated and developed in Chapter III of Law no. 47/1992.
Keywords: constitutionality control, unconstitutionality exception, advisory opinion.
THE EXTERNAL DEBT OF DEVELOPPING COUNTRIES AGAINST THE GLOBAL CRYSIS BACKGROUND
Statistical data regarding the last decade show a growth tendency of the developing countries’ external debt. In regard of the debt’s structure, both debtors and private financial lenders have registered growing percentages. Because the production increase in these countries has outgrown the debt increase, external debt is still small in regard with the GDP.
The geographical analysis of the data shows a diversity of situations, with important reserves being accumulated in Brazil, India, China and the Russian Federation on the one side and a current account deficit coupled with insufficient reserves to cover at least the short term debt on the other side, especially in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Keywords: external debt, gross national income, current account, developing countries, financial crisis