Numarul 11/ 2010

Anuarul Institutului de Cercetari Socio-Umane „CS Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, nr XI/ 2010

CONTENTS/SOMMAIRE

Symbol and Mythology: Cultural and Historical Interferences / Symbole et mythologie: interférences culturelles et historiques
Claude-Gilbert DUBOIS (Bordeaux), La rose en tous ses etats, festifs et intempestifs: image poetique, symbole politique 5
Ion MILITARU (Craiova), Retour sur un dialogue oublie: amour et nature (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre) 27
Silviu-Gabriel LOHON (Craiova), Towards a Visual Dialectics.The Triumph of the Proletariat in Romanian Totalitarian Art 35

Rediscovering the Religious Tradition: Meanings, Ascetics and Philological Interpretation/Redécouvrir la tradition réligieuse: sens, ascetisme et intérpretation philologique
Mihai Valentin VLADIMIRESCU (Craiova), The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The Origins of the Cross and its Ancient Meanings 41
Constantin MIHAI (Rm. Valcea), Mortification and Suffering: the Ascetics and the Mystics of Saint Paul 51
Mihai CIUREA (Craiova), The most Important Romanian Versions of the Bible 63

Popular Culture and Religion in Romanian Area/ Culture populaire et réligion dans l’espace roumain
Iustina BURCI (Craiova), Religion and Popular Beliefs in the Actual Romanian Surnames 85
Loredana Maria ILIN-GROZOIU (Craiova), The Assumption of the Virgin Holiday in the Bulzesti commune, Dolj county 95
Anca CEAUSESCU (Craiova), Cultural Confluences in the Transbordering Danubian Space.The carolling 103

Archaeological Perspectives: from Artistic Representations to Funeral Ritual/ Perspectives archéologiques: des représentations artistiques au rituels funéraires
Iohana NICHITA (Slatina), Attributes of the Great Mother Goddess in the Neolithic and Eneolithic Plastic Art from Oltenia 113
Simona LAZAR (Craiova), The Bronze Hoards from the South-west of Romania and from the Neighbouring,South-Danube Areas (I) 131
Irina-Maria POPESCU (Craiova), The Research Stadium for the Burrial Grounds from the Lower Danube in the 9th – 10th Centuries 143

Institutional Strategies and Political Mechanisms/ Stratégies institutionnelles et mécanismes politiques
Rodica IANOS-TOADERE (Cluj-Napoca), The Child’s Identity in the View of the Romanian Pedagogy of the 19th Century  Transylvania  161
Georgeta GHIONEA (Craiova), The establishment of a great bank: The Bank of Commerce from Craiova (1897-1948) 185
Diana-Mihaela PAUNOIU (Craiova), Parliament Elections on December 1937 in Oltenia County 197
Narcisa MITU (Craiova), The Crown Domain in the International Exhibitions (1884-1948) 215

Past and Present Crisis: International Relations, Social Solidarity and Contemporary Media/Crises passées et présentes: relations internationales, solidarités sociales et media contemporaine
Mihaela BARBIERU (Craiova), Romanian-Yugoslav Military Relations between 1934-1939 225
Eugen Cristian RADUl (Craiova), Retreat of Soviet Occupation Troops from Romania during the Summer of 1958 237
Cezar AVRAM, Roxana RADU (Craiova), The Principle of Social Solidarity in European Union Norms and Romanian Law 249
LaurenNiu RADU (Craiova), Is Advertising a Solution in the Current Times of Economic Recession? 263

History of Elites: Socio-cultural and Political Dimensions/ Histoire des élites: dimensions socio-culturelles et politiques
Nicolae MIHAI (Craiova), Culture festive et emotional community dans le XIXe siecle. Reflexions sur l’histoire culturelle du politique 275
Gabriel CROITORU (Craiova), L’evolution de la categorie des boyards dans l’Oltenie de la premiere moitie du XIXe siecle 285
Ileana CIOAREC (Craiova), The Savoiu Boyars’Cultural Role 293
Andrei Florin SORA (Bucarest), Les agents du pouvoir central dans l’administration locale: les prefets, les sous-prefets, les directeurs de prefecture, XIXe siecle -1916 229
Camelia RUNCEANU (Paris-Bucarest), Engagement et production scientifique. Un projet a l’oeuvre chez les intellectuels roumains 329

Opinions
Osvaldo SACCHI (Napoli), ‘Classico’ e diritto romano. Considerazioni in limine a un dibattito ‘interdisciplinare’ (III) 345
Marcius KULA (Warsaw), Poor old Marx 361

Contributions
Gabriela BOANGIU (Craiova), Contributions des personnalites d’Oltenie a la configuration de la folkloristique en tant que discipline 367

Books Reviews/Comptes rendus
Pavel Florenski, Imena, Sankt-Petersburg, Azbuka-klassika, 2007, 334 p.(Iustina Burci) 377
Hugo Hernan Hernandez, Fiesta, espectaculo y teatralidad en el Mexico de los conquistadores, Frankfurt/Madrid, Iberoamericana/Vervuert, 2009, 229 p. (Oana Andreia Sâmbrian) 379
Loredana Maria Ilin-Grozoiu, Sistemul constitutional romanesc 1821-1923 (Romanian constitutional system 1821-1923), Craiova, Publishing House Aius, 2009, 395 p. (Georgeta Ghionea) 380
Georgeta Ghionea, Istoria bancilor urbane din Oltenia (1880-1948) (The history of urban banks from Oltenia 1880-1948), Craiova, Publishing House Aius, 2009, 298 p. (Narcisa Maria Mitu) 382
Claude-Gilbert Dubois, Recits et mythes de foundation dans l’imaginaire culturel occidental, Pessac, PUB, 2009, 385 p. (Constantin Mihai) 384

Journal Review
Association des Amis de Gaston Bachelard, Bachelard et la musique, Bulletin, No.11/2009, 157 p. (Constantin Mihai) 387
Association des Amis de Gaston Bachelard, Images revees, images realisees. Bachelard et les arts plastiques, Bulletin, No. 12/2010, 156 p. (Constantin Mihai) 389
Cultural & Social History. The Journal of the Social History Society, volume 7, issue 2, June 2010 (Nicolae Mihai) 391

Scientific Chronicle
International conference Image and Political Power: the European Festive Culture between Representation and Instrumentalisation (Oana Andreia Sâmbrian) 393

SYMBOL AND MYTHOLOGY: CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL INTERFERENCES/ SYMBOLE ET MYTHOLOGIE:  INTERFÉRENCES CULTURELLES ET HISTORIQUES
LA ROSE EN TOUS SES ÉTATS, FESTIFS ET INTEMPESTIFS: IMAGE POETIQUE, SYMBOLE POLITIQUE
Claude-Gilbert DUBOIS1
Université «Michel de Montaigne», Bordeaux
gcdubois@wanadoo.fr
Abstract: The rose, used as a reason for lyric songs („Mignonne, allons voir si la rose”), had, as an emblem, the same fate as the cherry in the French song „Le temps des cerises”. This symbol, used mainly by the lyric poets to express the epicurean pleasures of life, and spring holidays, along with their short duration, was recovered as a political emblem. The rose that adorns the lyrical verses and serves as a backdrop to ancient celebrations of „Rosalie”, as to the more modern, if somewhat antiquated, of the „rosieres”, is also used as a mark of recognition of a party or of faction: the case for the two hostile families that are delivered to the „Wars of the Roses” in 15th Century England, for the expression of political struggles in Ireland in 20th Century in the drama Red Roses for Me by Sean O’Casey, and the choice made by the French Socialist Party. This paper traces, through its range of uses, the multiple meanings of an image, transformed, as the case, in icon, symbol, allegory, symbol, mythème.

RETOUR SUR UN DIALOGUE OUBLIÉ: AMOUR ET NATURE (BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE)
Ion MILITARU
Institut de recherches en sciences socio-humaines „C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, Craiova
ionmilitaru@yahoo.com
Abstract: The present paper aims to reopen the debate about the relation between love and nature, starting from a representative case study for the
European history of such a topic. Taking into account the very specific literary and philosophical context of its time, we try to underline the importance of the vision propose through this key concepts. The nature of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Rousseau now become a very explanatory for all major construction
of speculative philosophy. In the real order history, love takes place in society, in the territory of a story that gives it a place and supports economic ingredients and time. Practically, we can’t discuss about love outside the context of the
world and history that produced her. Love outside history, recte only in the simple nature, is not discoverable in what is already known. But is it possible to think such a love? Can we suggest a love out of a minimum standards, conventions and strong moral, all what define a society?

TOWARDS A VISUAL DIALECTICS. THE TRIUMPH OF THE PROLETARIAT IN ROMANIAN TOTALITARIAN ART
Silviu-Gabriel LOHON
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
gabilohon@gmail.com
Abstract: In communist Romania, a questionable reverence for those artists working together with an enduring faith in the labour ethic played a significant
role in shaping self – and civic identity from the late 19th till the near end of the second half of the twentieth century. Certainly it was a commonplace
assumption that what the artists did as communists was often the most outstanding indicator of who they were. The diversity of images and objects
belonging to Romanian socialist realism placed upon the worker’s heels a false property of heavenly ingredients for the birth of the new communist man, and the official painters were not far from this commitment. In the present article, I shall
dwell upon the way Romanian totalitarian art turned the original role of art into a manipulative tool which legitimately paved the way of the communist political system to a powerful and influential position.

REDISCOVERING THE RELIGIOUS TRADITION: MEANINGS, ASCETICS, AND PHILOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION/REDECOUVRIR LA TRADITION RELIGIEUSE: SENS, ASCETISME ET INTERPRÉTATION PHILOLOGIQUE
THE CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS CHRIST. THE ORIGINS OF THE CROSS AND ITS ANCIENT MEANINGS*
Mihai Valentin VLADIMIRESCU
University of Craiova
vladimirescu_mihai@yahoo.com
Abstract: The present paper deals with historical origins of the cross as torture instrument during Antiquity, starting form the Persian Empire until Hellenistic Epoch. A special emphasize is put on the description of the ways in which crucifixion occurs in IthB.C and Ith A.C, the additional torture modalities, the places dedicated, as well as on the emotional impact to the audience Far apart the particular historical aspects and the analysis of how crucifixion penetrated in the area where Christ lived, His crucifixion is seen in the political context of the period, by taking into account the role of the political personalities implied and the essential anamnetic role for that particular event.

MORTIFICATION AND SUFFERING. THE ASCETICS AND THE MYSTICS OF SAINT PAUL
Constantin MIHAI
“Constantin Brâncoveanu” University, Rm. Vâlcea
costimihai1977@yahoo.fr
Abstract: This study attempts to reconsider the issue of mortification or suffering starting from the thesis of Metropolitan Nicolae Mladin, L’Ascèse et la mystique de Saint Paul. Our approach focuses on the central concept of ascese. This is the materialization of baptism is the extension of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ in conscious life: asceticism is the abandonment of the old man (mortification) in favor of that renewed in Christ (imitatio Christi). In fact, the ascetic mortification and physical and spiritual pain are the concrete expression of the sacramental and mystical death. The meaning ascetic (Academic) of suffering, which is essential for Christians, revolves around the love for the cross is the supreme form of negation of self (mortification). Martyrage is the development of asceticism. Our study also intends to identify the spiritual meaning of suffering as an expression of two types: human and divine order. The suffering becomes the sign, the event, the externalization of the ontological Participation

THE MOST IMPORTANT ROMANIAN VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE
Mihai CIUREA
University of Craiova
ciureamihaijr@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract: The interest for having the biblical text in Romanian has always dominated the conscience of the Romanian people. The first biblical manuscripts
found in the north of Transylvania, at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century (1480-1500). The New Testament of Balgrad
(1648), the first complete edition in Romanian was followed by the Bible of Bucharest. After almost a century after its release, the bishop Samuil Micu Clain
made a new translation known as the Bible of Blaj (1795). The Bishop Filotei of Buzau printed five volumes, between 1854-1856, known as the Bible of Buzau.
Andrei Saguna (1808-1873), started printing a new edition followed by others in the next years.

POPULAR CULTURE AND RELIGION IN ROMANIAN AREA/CULTURE POPULAIRE ET RÉLIGION DANS L’ ESPACE ROUMAIN RELIGION AND POPULAR BELIEFS IN THE ACTUAL ROMANIAN SURNAMES
Iustina BURCI
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
iustinaburci@yahoo.com
Abstract: The anthroponymy holds a great number of lexemes that belong to various fields. Especially the surnames have a unique and rich basis of which
resources can be found in all the aspects of the material and spiritual life of the people who once lived on this territory. In this article we intended to present the actual surnames that are related to the religion field and that appeared either through anthroponymical conversion, from a first name or based on a nickname.
The greater or smaller number of anthroponyms, in a determined region, allow us to notice the spiritual boundaries within which occur in old people’s lives and the importance of faith in the conduct of their daily existence; researching them, we can also establish some aspects of our historical reality – the role played by the church in a community, the church hierarchy, the frequent shift to the orthodox religion etc., or linguistic – the restoring of certain stages of language development on vocabulary, lexical borrows, the change of the value of some appellations through their transfer and use in the terminology of other compartments of the language etc.

THE ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN HOLIDAY IN THE BULZESTI COMMUNE, DOLJ COUNTY
Loredana Maria ILIN-GROZOIU
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities”, Craiova
lorelayy2007@yahoo.com
Abstract: The holidays are different from the other days of the year first of all because in the Orthodox Church is officiated the divine service and the believers participate to the holly services and listen the wise words of the priest. Therefore, each Christian enjoys the holidays in a clerical way. Then, the difference lays in the fact that all the responsibilities and other usual duties are ceased and replaced with religious preoccupations. The Assumption of the Virgin, commonly called The Great Saint Mary, is the event that marks the end of the earthly life. In the eve of the holiday takes place the Vespers service, along with The Requiem of the Blessed Virgin that is sung by all the believers. With the occasion of this holiday, on August the 15th is organized in the Bulzesti commune an annual fairy where the villagers from this commune and from the neighborhood attend.

CULTURAL CONFLUENCES IN THE TRANSBORDERING DANUBIAN SPACE. THE CAROLLING
Anca CEAUSESCU
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities
ancaceausescu@yahoo.com
Abstract: Although border between Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia, the Danube area currently appears as a specific area of socio-cultural interference. Migration of population from one bank to another has contributed not only to trade development but also to intense cultural exchange as it testified by the
language, lifestyle, habits or traditions. In this regard, we focused on the carolling tradition in an attempt to identify their characteristics in the border region of the Danube.

ARCHAELOGIC PERSPECTIVES: FROM ARTISTIC REPRESENTATIONS TO FUNERAL RITUAL/ PERSPECTIVES ARCHÉLOGIQUES: DES REPRÉSENTATIONS ARTISTIQUES AU RITUAL FUNÉRAIRES
ATTRIBUTES OF THE GREAT MOTHER GODDESS IN THE NEOLITHIC AND ENEOLITHIC PLASTIC ART FROM OLTENIA
Iohana NICHITA
Museum of Slatina
iohana1980@yahoo.com
Abstract: The studies referring to the anthropomorphic plastic art from the Neolithic and Eneolithic era are rich and complex. We must mention that the plastic art, that constitutes the primordial element when defining a culture, reflects the magicalreligious beliefs common to all the members of a community. The cult of fertility is attested in the Neolithic and Eneolithic period through the anthropomorphic representations (most of them feminine and rarely masculine) and zoomorphic. The anthropomorphic representations find their essence in the cult, in the belief in the Great Mother Goddess. The plastic representations so rich in the Neolithic and Eneolithic cultures from our country had also a magical-religious function. They can also be regarded as art manifestations, the Neolithic and Eneolithic artisans succeeding to make more than a simply suggest of the reality, moulding in clay, but, with good reason, works that have an incontestably plastic value.

THE BRONZE HOARDS FROM THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA AND FROM THE NEIGHBOURING, SOUTH-DANUBE AREAS (I)
Simona LAZAR
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
simonalazar@ymail.com
Abstract: The most important thing in discussing about the bronze hoards is that related to the signification and the interpretation of the deposing. For this purpose we believe that it is necessary to enumerate the main interpretations regarding this phenomenon, seen in its general reading. After studying the
disposing on the map of the hoards, it results the fact already noticed in the placement of some types of bronze items: on one side, we can observe their
concentration in the Danube area, before the entering in the Clisura Dunarii and in the Clisura area, and, on the other side, the relative big number of sites in Banat, especially around the town VârseN (Vršac). We shall present below the list of the hoards from the south-west of Romania and the neighbouring areas and also their placement on the map.

THE RESEARCH STADIUM FOR THE BURRIAL GROUNDS FROM THE LOWER DANUBE IN THE 7TH – 10TH CENTURIES
Irina-Maria POPESCU
Museum of Oltenia, Craiova
popescuirinamaria@yahoo.fr
Abstract: This article is a presentation of the cemeterries from the Lower Danube in a period in which the river was still a separation line between the
Slavs and the nativs. The research of the funeral discoveries dated from the end of the Byzantine domination and from the period of the first Bulgarian empire began after the Second World War A big part of the excavations was made by J. Važarova and D.I. Dimitrov in Bulgaria and by B. Mitrea in Romania. While the assignments of the Romanian scientists are governated by the ideea of pointing out the continuity and liability of the Romanians, the Bulgarian scientists managed to earn their success by classifying the cemeteries. Važarova makes a distinction between the cremation Slav cemeteries and the biritual Bulgarian
cemeteries and introduces a new group, the late inhumation cemetery assigned to the Christian period and to both ethnic groups, the Bulgarians and the Slavs.

INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES AND POLITICAL MECHANISMS/ STRATÉGIES INSTITUTIONNELS ET MÉCANISMES POLITIQUES
THE CHILD’S IDENTITY IN THE VIEW OF THE ROMANIAN PEDAGOGY OF THE 19TH CENTURY TRANSYLVANIA
Rodica IANOS-TOADERE
University “Babes-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca
rodicaianos@yahoo.fr
Abstract: The present study invites to a more attentive approach of Romanian Pedagogy from the 19th century Transylvania. If the pedagogical vocation is a
constant trait of the Transylvanian intellectual’s profile, however it’s difficult to make a correct evaluation of the models, especially for a istoriography that continues to make confusions beetwen political and intellectual spheres.

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GREAT BANK: THE BANK OF COMMERCE FROM CRAIOVA (1897-1948)
Georgeta GHIONEA,
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
getaghionea@yahoo.com
Abstract: The present article deals with the apparition of a great financial institution in Romanian urban space at the end of 19th Century which builds its
strong reputation as the largest bank in Romania in 20th century. This was due to an intelligent strategy that we could identify today. First of all, the Commerce Bank inaugurated an active policy of setting up subsidiary or sponsored banks. Second, the financial institution was particularly interested in streghten its position as essential pillar of Oltenia solidarity bank during major crises that undermine also the Romanian financial markets. Finally, she takes a role no less important in the activity of large industrial enterprises of the time.

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS ON DECEMBER 1937 IN OLTENIA COUNTY*
Diana-Mihaela PAUNOIU
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
dianamihaelapaunoiu@yahoo.com
Abstract: In this paper we present two principal issues. In first part of the paper, we present the election campaign realized by local organizations of the main Romanian parties engaged in competition, the focus being on the actions of Legionary Movement. The sources used for documentation are, especially,
confidential reports and bulletins elaborated in that period by the Regional Inspectorate of Gendarmes Craiova. In the second part of the paper, we present
the results of the Parliament election, the accent being set on the options of the Oltenian electorate. Thru this paper, we want to integrate the political local events in the national history and to fill a blank space in the speciality literature.

THE CROWN DOMAIN AT THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS (1884-1948)
Narcisa MITU
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities
minarcisa@yahoo.com
Abstract: Through the participation at exhibitions, the Romanian products issued from the Royal Estate had the chance to enter and be known on international markets. It testified by so many requests over time for acquiring some products, especially wooden products and wine. The international exhibition from Paris in 1900 has been a success for the Royal Estate of Romania, as it evidenced by the receipt of 21 medals. Starting with this year, this institution has been regularly present to all international exhibitions where Romania was invited to exhibit. We could note in this regard the exhibitions from Lemberg – Ukraine (1925), Warsaw – Poland (1929), New – York – SUA (1938).

PAST AND PRESENT CRISIS: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, SOCIAL SOLIDARITY AND CONTEMPORARY MEDIA/ CRISES PASSÉES ET PRÉSENTES: RELATIONS INTERNATIONALES, SOLIDARITÉS SOCIALES ET MEDIA CONTEMPORAINE
ROMANIAN-YUGOSLAV MILITARY RELATIONS BETWEEN 1934-1939
Mihaela BARBIERU
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
miha_marbieru@yahoo.com
Abstract: The present paper deals with the history of military relations between two states from Eastern Europe. Using both diplomatic and military documents
we try to underline the importance of such relations in a period when both Romania and Yugoslavia were actively implied in foreign policies regarding the
national independence and sovereignty, equal rights, international cooperation, defense of territorial status quo and the international treaties concluded after the First World War. Regional security system in central and southeastern Europe during this period was based on two documents of great importance: The Pact of the Reorganization of the Little Entente (February 1933) and Balkan Pact (February 1934).

RETREAT OF SOVIET OCCUPATION TROOPS FROM ROMANIA DURING THE SUMMER OF 1958
Eugen Cristian RADUT
University of Craiova Abstract: The article briefly reveals some of the main actions that established the soviet military occupation on Romania since World War II and by the summer of 1958 and also pursues the steps that have made possible this event taking place successfully, which will undoubtedly foster a new direction in the Romanian politics. Unless subsequent Albania, Romanian People’s Republic was the only member country of the Warsaw Treaty of which the Soviet Union withdrew its troops. Also on this issue are different views: was it the result of the subtlety of Romanian Workers’ Party leadership, especially Gheorghiu-Dej, as evidenced in memoirs, or higher was for economic and military purpose of the Soviet Union, especially Nikita Khrushchev, as researchers considered in terms of studying the Romanian and Soviet archival sources?

THE PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL SOLIDARITY IN EUROPEAN UNION NORMS AND ROMANIAN LAW
Roxana RADU
rocxaine@yahoo.com
Cezar AVRAM
avramcezar@yahoo.com
University of Craiova
Abstract: Solidarity itself is a guiding principle for social policy. This document consists of reviewing the legal framework of a theory of solidarity. The theory of solidarity is the theoretical basis of the principle of social solidarity, which applies national law, European law and international law. The results of investigation of the concept of solidarity will be compared to the legal concepts at two levels: national law and European law. An explanation and analysis of the meaning of the concept of solidarity is essential in the current European debate and the global economic crisis. It is suggested that attempts to promote growth and economic prosperity of every member of society can only be for the universal good.

IS ADVERTISING A SOLUTION IN THE CURRENT TIMES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS?
Laurentiu RADU
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
xlaur2007@yahoo.com
Abstract: As an after-effect of the global economic crisis, the world economy has suffered major disruptions. Supply-demand relationship has been affected
both economically and between advertising producers and their customers. In this context, the advertising market sought to exploit new means of communication, using the latest production and promotion technologies for their advertising products. During the early stages of economic recession the
persuasive power of the advertising message is highly overrated, which can generate an increasing demand for advertising, while in latter stages of
recession, it faces its own recession, due to budget cuts, reduction of the target audience and less spectacular results, while, paradoxically, customer demands are much higher.

HISTORY OF ELITES: SOCIO-CULTURAL AND POLITICAL DIMENSIONS / HISTOIRE DES ELITES: DIMENSIONS SOCIO-CULTURELLES ET POLITIQUES
CULTURE FESTIVE ET COMMUNAUTÉ ÉMOTIONNELLE AU XIXE SIÈCLE. RÉFLEXIONS SUR L’HISTOIRE CULTURELLE DU POLITIQUE
Nicolae MIHAI
Institut de recherches socio-humaines „C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, Craiova
nicom48@gmail.com
Abstract: The festive culture is nowadays a successful topics, especially when is associated with new methodologies as they are those proposed by the
Cultural History of Politics or History of Emotions. The present paper aims to open a similar debate in the Romanian space, starting from a critical discussion about some hypothesis of research and a briefly view on Romanian historiography to the analysis of opportunities to submit documents from the
Romanian archives about 19th Century to a new interpretive grid, especially from the study of the relationship established between power, festive culture and
emotional community.

L’ÉVOLUTION DE LA CATÉGORIE DES BOYARDS DANS L’OLTÉNIE DE LA PREMIÈRE MOITIÉ DU XIXE SIÈCLE
Gabriel CROITORU
Institut de recherches en sciences socio-humaines “C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, Craiova
gabrielcroit@gmail.com
Abstract: Based on studies of other specialists but also on documents of the time, this study proposes an analyse of the evolution of the aristocratic elite from Oltenia. The author notes the changes that have affected the elite category, forced to seek new repositioning in modern society. Prestige derived from
administrative and military career or success in business will try to sustain a position in a society where membership in a social group begins to meet new
definitions. The statistic dimension of the Oltenian boyards presence in the state affairs is also taken into account.

THE SAVOIU BOYARDS’ CULTURAL ROLE
Ileana CIOAREC
“C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, Craiova
ileanacioarec@yahoo.com
Abstract: In this article the author tries to analyse the cultural role of a local family from the Oltenian aristocracy, the boyars Savoiu. Still unknown, this family beside Bengescu and Paraianu families in the northern Oltenia, the Hotarani family from RomanaNi district and the powerfull Craiovescu family, played an important role in the history of Wallachia. Their position and prestige is visible also through their patrimonal policy and presence in public space. Their names is associated with the construction of churches in Lupoaia and Borascu, as well as with a school in Targu Jiu.

LES AGENTS DU POUVOIR CENTRAL DANS L’ADMINISTRATION LOCALE : LES PRÉFETS, LES SOUS-PRÉFETS, LES DIRECTEURS DE PRÉFECTURE, XIXE SIÈCLE -1916
Andrei Florin Sora
Universite de Bucarest
andreisora@yahoo.com
Abstract: This study aims to propose a new perspective on the organization of public officials in social and professional elite, starting from research of the legislative construction of this important institution for the modernization of Romania. The foreign influences are also subject of our interest. We have
chosen a chronological presentation taking into account the three categories submitted to analyze: prefect, director of the prefecture and district chief. The inconsistency of Romanian legislators with regard to the prefects was also observed in the successive changes of the names of the function of district chief and director of the prefecture. This presentation of the legislation highlights the duties of officers of the central government at local level.

ENGAGEMENT ET PRODUCTION SCIENTIFIQUE. UN PROJET A L’OEUVRE CHEZ LES INTELLECTUELS ROUMAINS
Camelia RUNCEANU
EHESS-Université de Bucarest
camelia.runceanu@gmail.com
Abstract: Starting from an inquiry made with Romanian intellectuals, from an analysis of books published by intellectuals of various professions philosophers, sociologists, historians, psychologists), and from the texts published in the press of the time, especially in the review ‘22’ of the Group for Social Dialogue, we would like to study herein the relation between intellectual engagement through journalism end the interest for science of intellectuals after 1989. We are going to identify hereby the possible functions of the intellectual engagement, as well as the benefit and the risk it may encounter along with the form of political engagement of the intellectuals. The question here points to the assertion for a new authority of alumni and young intellectuals aiming at achieving a university statute and at building a new competence in order to satisfy the demands for renewal in social science and the humanities.

OPINIONS
‘CLASSICO’ E DIRITTO ROMANO.CONSIDERAZIONI IN LIMINE A UN DIBATTITO ‘INTERDISCIPLINARE’ (III)
Osvaldo SACCHI
Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli
osvaldo.sacchi@tin.it
Abstract: This is the final part of a research focused on the notion of ‘classic’ on Roman law and also about the future of these studies. The evaluation of the rapports that the classic philology had with the Roman law is important to understand the force of the “classic” term. Using a lot of examples from the
intellectuals of 18th and 19th Centuries, the author underlined how important is become today the revalorisation of a cultural heritage, in terms of not only
assuring a technical preparation for a social reality, but transmitting a minimum model of valours.

POOR OLD MARX
Marcin KULA
Leon Kozminski University, Warsaw
j.m.kula-na-uw.edu.pl
Abstract: The present paper aims to discuss about the posterity of this classic of the Left, to underline the failures of an utopia almost never sustained by the historical realities. Its only success was to be adopted by an ideology whose regimes illustrated themselves by crime, terror, famine against their citizens.

CONTRIBUTIONS
CONTRIBUTIONS DES PERSONNALITÉS D’ OLTÉNIE À LA CONFIGURATION DE LA FOLKLORISTIQUE EN TANT QUE DISCIPLINE
Gabriela BOANGIU
Institut de recherches en sciences socio-humaines ” C.S.Nicolaescu-Plopsor „, Craiova
boangiu_g@yahoo.com
Abstract: The cultural space of Oltenia is well known for its personalities who brought a special contribution to the Romanian folklore and to Romanian identity as well. The Oltenian folklorists played an important role by opening specific fields of research, by opening collaboration chains with other ethnographic regions and also by creating specialized reviews in the scientific field. From this perspective, it is important to mention: Gheorghe N. Dumitrescu-Bistri’a who published “Izvorasul/ Review of Ethnography and Folkore”; Tony Brill with his well known studies regarding the legends; Ioan G. Bibicescu – who built the Collection of Folklore dedicated to the League for cultural unity of Romanians; Nadejde Iosif – with his well known collection of stories “Pacala’s Prodigies”; Monica Bratulescu – with her ample studies regarding the folkloric poetics and also her researches regarding the classification of winter carols and folklore editions. All these studies are inscribed with honor in the Romanian spirituality, highlightening the importance on the creation of bridges between folkloric regions with a rich cultural patrimony but also between specialists that come from different fields of research and can
bring important interdisciplinary contributions.

BOOKS REVIEWS/ COMPTES RENDUS
Pavel Florenski, Imena, Sankt-Petersburg, Azbuka-klassika, 2007, 334 p.
Diplome de l’Academie Theologique Russe et connu par ses ouvrages dans les domaines de la mathematique, de la philosophie et de l’histoire de la philosophie, de l’histoire de l’art, de l’electrotechnique, de la chimie, le Pere Pavel Florenski nous decouvert dans l’ouvrage Imena (Le nom), son autre facette, eut-etre mieux connue: celle de fin observateur de la typologie humaine et, en etroite liaison avec cette-ci, de la relation entre la personnalite d’un individu et le nom qu’il porte.
Le livre est fonde sur un cahier de “Notes d’onomatologie” que Pavel Florenski a redige au fil du temps, en differentes etapes de sa vie. L’interet pour les prenoms a pris naissance des sa vie d’etudiant; puis il l’a suivie comme professeur lorsqu’il analysait les noms des ses eleves; en fait, il ne l’a quitte jamais, meme dans la periode de son emprisonnement dans le camp.
L’introduction (pp. 3-19), signee par K. Vasiliev, permet au lecteur de connaitre les des conditions sociales et politiques de la vie et activite de Pere Florenski: La Grande Guerre mondiale, la chute de la monarchie russe, l’instauration du regime communiste, la guerre civile, les repressions physiques et psychiques des opposants aux changements introduits par le regime bolchevique, les prisons et les camps communistes. Les jeunes etaient invites a renoncer a des anciennes valeurs pour les nouveaux et de rompre tous les liens avec l’Eglise. Dans l’effervescence cree, nombreux etaient ceux qui avaient choisi changer leurs noms [ces exemples abondent dans les journaux de cette epoque; d’entre eux, une jeune femme, Maria, s’appelait maintenant Oktiabrina (oktiabr’ – octobre) et un jeune Dvorjankin (vieux nom de famille Russe) – Krasnii BoeN (Le guerrier Rouge)]. Tout cela a amene l’auteur des Notes a conclure que, dans le passe, le nom representait l’essence meme de l’etre humaine, contrairement au present quand il n’a plus reste qu’un son vide. C’est son desir de rediger un dictionnaire ou il pourrait mettre en lumiere les traits specifiques de chaque nom – a partir des ecrits populaires, la litterature culte, les ecrits religieux, et, neanmoins, sa propre experience – qui l’a fait chercher constamment des informations meme de l’Antiquite, depuis Homer.
La premiere partie de son ouvrage Onomatologhia (pp. 21-134), comprend ses recherches et son point de vue sur: la connexion entre le nom et son porteur; leur
signification mystique; le nom religieux; les changements de nom – par le mariage, l’esclavage, la naturalisation au sein d’une societe et un peuple etranger; les influences des certaines personnalites de l’epoque sur la croissance ou la diminution quantitative des certains prenoms; des noms diminutifs ou meprisants; la fonction sociale des noms etc. Il a suivi et etudie particulierement ceux qui l’ont impressionne beaucoup [des noms de divers oeuvres litteraires signees par Prosper Merimee, Flaubert, Emil Zola, A.S. Puskin et alii, noms de saints etc.] en arrivant meme a leur decomposition et transcription avec des lettres hebraiques afin d’obtenir une analyse plus approfondie (telle le cas du prenom Mariula du poeme Les Tziganes de Pouchkine). Il ne peut eviter de noter qu’au fil du temps, les gens qui ont joue un certain role dans l’histoire de la societe humaine (parmi eux, les templiers, francs-macons, Jacobins etc.) ont porte des noms similaires.
Le dictionnaire2 proprement dit comprend les noms suivants: Alexandru (p. 134- 140), Alexandra (p. 140-145), Aleksei (p.146-154), Anna (p. 155-160), Vasili (p. 160-166), Sofia (p. 166-177), Vladimir (p. 177-189), Olga (p. 189-200), Konstantin (p. 200-208), Elena (p. 208-217), Nicolai (p. 218-229), Ecaterina (p. 230-241), Dimitri (p. 241-252), Varvara (p. 252-263), Pavel (p. 263-293), Liudmila (p. 293-300), Vera (p. 300-304), Mihail (p. 304-310). Les personnes qui les portent sont soumises a une analyse extremement approfondie en termes de traits physiques et mentaux, de la facon de penser, d’agir et de reagir par rapport a eux-memes et a d’autres membres de la communaute.
La plupart des pages sont consacrees au prenom de Paul. Le Pere Florenski avouait, par ailleurs, que pour ce nom il n’a pas trouve dans toute l’histoire un
representant plus celebre que l’Apotre Paul. Au fil des annees, bien avant son emprisonnent, on trouvait parfois la note suivante, en marge de son cahier: “Telle nom, telle vie”, temoignage du succes de l’auteur dans son activite de trouver une correspondance entre le prenom et son porteur.
Mais, vers la fin de sa vie, apres une longue experience, dans une lettre envoye du camp SoloveNki, Pavel Florenski ecrivait: “le nom en soi n’apporte dans la vie de l’homme ni bien ni mal, il est seulement une forme musicale sur laquelle on peut creer une bonne ou mauvaise oeuvre”. L’ironie du destin, a fait que celui qui a signe sa condamnation a mort portait un nom predestine: Zakovski3 (d’un mot qui en Russe signifie “menotter, mettre en chaines”).
La tache de la vie est de ne pas passer ta vie dans la paix, mais de vivre dans la dignite et ne pas etre inutile et un ballast pour ton pays. C’etait le principe que le pere Florenski a toujours suivi, en donnant entierement de sa personne, par son activite, a tous les compatriotes .
Iustina Burci

Hugo Hernan Hernandez, Fiesta, espectaculo y teatralidad en el Mexico de los conquistadores, Frankfurt/Madrid, Iberoamericana/Vervuert, 2009, 229 p.
Le Mexique du XVIe siecle a ete la scene de nombreuses parades, processions, fetes des Maures et des Chretiens, et des jeux qui mettaient en place les affrontements militaires, auxquelles prenaient part presque toute la population. Dans son livre, Hugo Hernan Hernandez, professeur et chercheur a l’Universite des Andes de Colombie, analyse l’evolution des festivites et des spectacles au Mexique, mise en etroite liaison avec la tradition
espagnole et pas seulement celle du type evangelisateur. En meme temps, l’ouvrage souligne l’importance du fait que les ceremonies et les representations n’ont pas ete touches que d’une maniere reduite par les traditions autochtones, et que vers la fin du XVIe siecle, on a construit des espaces specialement concus pour les representations theatrales, perfectionnement de l’utilisation des costumes et des scenes de construction, qui montrent le debut d’un processus complexe de l’ouverture du theatre urbain. Les espaces de representation les plus souvent utilises, a la fois pour les ceremonies religieuses et les fetes civiles, etaient la rue, le marche, le temple et les chapelles ouvertes. La ville entiere devenait une grande scene ou on representait les rites
d’une societe en developpement. Les vetements etaient toujours en harmonie avec l’evenement mis en scene; par exemple les clercs savaient se vetir differemment pour un Te Deum, un requiem ou pour une procession du Corpus. Dans le premier chapitre, a partir de l’affirmation de Jose Maria Diez Borque’s
selon lequel il est difficile de savoir si le spectateur du XVIe siecle disposait de la capacite de discerner entre les differentes degres de theatralite contenus dans des dialogues, coplas, farces, eglogue, comedies, l’auteur se penche exactement sur la recherche du concept de theatralite de recherche. Le deuxieme chapitre vise a demontrer la mesure dans laquelle ce qu’on a prefere appeler theatralite se fait manifester a Ciudad de Mexico, en examinant deux aspects fondamentaux du concept: la construction de la ville et l’organisation des spectacles. Ces activites ne renvoient pas seulement a un certain processus de l’urbanisation ou de transplantation institutionnelle, qu’a une strategie visant a renforcer la ville comme espace hispanique. Le troisieme chapitre examine, sur la base des documents d’archives, les caracteristiques de deux des plus importantes fetes solennelles de Ciudad de Mexico: San
Hipolito et Corpus Christi. La documentation sert a mettre en evidence le faste associe aux processions, notamment celui visant les musiciens et les decors. A partir des recits des chroniques, le dernier chapitre est consacre a l’etude du specifique theatrale des meilleures significatifs fetes spontanees du Mexique des conquistadors: celles des Maures et Chretiens (1539) et du tumulus imperial, construit a l’occasion de la mort de Charles Quint. C’est ainsi
qu’on peut explorer le contexte dans lequel les pieces La conquete du Rodas et La conquete du Jerusalem ont ete representees a Ciudat de Mexico et Tlaxcala, de meme que le pompe funebre du Tumulus imperial, ecrit par Francisco Cervantes de Salazar. L’ouvrage de Hernan Hernandez attire l’attention sur le caractere theatral et l’evolution des spectacles, concus comme des clefs de la comprehension de l’apparition du theatre a Ciudad de Mexico. La periode choisie est marque par deux reperes importants: l’arrivee d’Hernan Cortes, en 1521, et l’arrivee de son fils, Martin Cortes, second marquis de Valle, en 1563, autrement dire, a partir de la chute du Tenochtitlan jusqu’a ce que la critique specialite appelle la Renaissance au Mexique.
Oana Andreia Sambrian

Loredana Maria Ilin-Grozoiu, Sistemul constituNional romanesc 1821-1923 (Romanian constitutional system 1821-1923), Craiova, Publishing House Aius,
2009, 395 p.
In 2009, the Publishing House Aius from Craiova edited the book Sistemul constituNional romanesc (1821-1923), Romanian constitutional system (1821-1923), of
the scientific researcher Dr. Loredana Maria Ilin-Grozoiu. The author had researched this theme with a lot of perseverance, her striving to deepen a subject so ample, being finalized into a valuable scientific contribution, impressive both through its documentaries basis, and its volume, 395 pages. The scientific approach was based on the study of a vast bibliography, from which does not lack the unpublished sources, the edit ones, the documents, the correspondence, the speeches, the memoirs and official publications.
On the ground of this documentation, systematically approached, the author has structured her work into seven chapters, respecting the chronological criterion for the issue classification and the evolution of the Romanian constitutional system, for the period of 1821-1923. To the seven chapters – Inceputurile constituNionalismului in Principatele Romane (The beginnings of constitutionalism in the Romanian principalities); Texte cu caracter constituNional pana la Regulamentele Organice (Texts of a constitutional nature untill the Organic Regulation regime); Regulamentele Organice – intre anacronic si modern (Organic Regulations – between anachronistic and modern); Proiecte constituNionale in perioada regulamentara:1838-1847 (Constitutional
projects in the regular period: 1838-1847); Momentul 1848 – programe si constitutii naNionale (The 1848 moment – national programs and constitutions); Modernizarea Principatelor Romane sub raport constituNional in perioada 1849-1866 (The Romanian principalities modernization under the constitutional rapport in the period 1849-1866); ConstituNia din anul 1866 (1866 Constitution of Romania); ConstituNia din anul 1923 (1923 Constitution of Romania) – are added the conclusions, an English summary and the bibliography. Each chapter has several subchapters, serving to the orderly undertaken analysis, and the appropriate language denotes the easiness with which the authors place herself in the logic of facts and conclusions. The approaching of the subject was done by the double qualification of the author, the historian and the lawyer one. After a series of historical considerations, in the introductory study, the author
thoroughly examines the historiography of the broached subject, stressing on the merits of the authors who were concerned with the research, in various ways, of the subject. In the first chapter, the author has found it necessary to analyze the normative writings, emerged since the beginnings of modernity in the Romanian principalities. Thus, a special attention has been given to constitutional formulation in the context of the Tudor Vladimirescu’s action. There were not even forgotten the memories and reform projects, sent to Russia and to Ottoman Empire in the period 1821-1832, the authors analyzing: the project sent to Russia, at the end of 1821, by Alexandru Villara; Wallachian boyars statement, Indreptarea Narii (dupa cele) ce a patimit Nara la 1821 de la straini (The Correction of the country (after) what it suffered in 1821 from the foreigners); Alexandru Villar’s statement of 1822; Cererile cele mai insemnatoare ce se
fac din partea obstei Moldaviei, ConstituNia carvunarilor (The main demands of the Moldova’s people, the Constitution of the carvunari). In the second chapter, the author treats the Organic Regulations, which was a transition stage from feudalism to capitalism, prefacing the modern organization of the
Romanian state. The Regulations have played the role of the constitution, being introduced in 1831 in Wallachia and in 1832 in Moldova. They have organized on modern basis the public services, have established the national militia, have modernized the financial system, have abolished the purchasing of functions, have formed a legislative assembly, have provided the choice of the ruler for life etc. The memoirs issued to some officials of Russia, by the nobility and rulers of the Romanian principalities, between 1834-1839, were treated by the author in the third chapter of the paper. A large part of this chapter was devoted to the life and work of John Campineanu, one of the foremost fighters for independence and national dignity, the author of key documents, including: Act of Union and independence and the Constitution Draft.
In the fourth chapter were analyzed, from historical and legal point of view, the principles inserted in the memoirs, the political acts and the drafts of the 1848 Constitution. The Revolution of 1848 was an important moment in terms of the relations between the Romanians from all historical provinces, helping to clarify and to establish the appropriate means, for building the modern Romania.
In the fifth chapter, the author studies the evolution of constitutional forms in the context of historical events, among which, the reign of Al. I. Cuza or the brink of the foreign prince.
The Constitutions of the years 1866 and 1923 are analyzed in Chapters VI – VII of the paper. There were stressed the changes intervened in the formulation of these constitutions, for achieving the goals, both liberals and democratic. The 1866 Constitution laid the foundation of the representative system of government in the modern Romanian state. They were proclaimed the civil rights; it was provided the removal of privileges, free education, press freedom, the separation powers principles, the switch from elective to the hereditary rule, there were established the prerogatives of the king etc. The 1923 Constitution was viewed and analyzed by the author, as a natural fulfillment of the previous Romanian constitutional aspirations.
Through the way of approaching the topic and through its conclusions, the presented paper, Sistemul constituNional romanesc (1821-1923) (Romanian constitutional system (1821-1923)), enriches the Romanian historiography with concrete evidences, regarding the constitutional formulations and historical circumstances that they have generated.
Georgeta Ghionea

Georgeta Ghionea, Istoria bancilor urbane din Oltenia (1880-1948) (The history of urban banks from Oltenia (1880-1948)), Craiova, Publishing House Aius,
2009, 298 p.
This impressive book on the history of urban banks from Oltenia and edited by the Publishing House Aius, from Craiova, at the end of 2009, is the result of an intense, close and solid research, in the National Archives of Oltenia, carried out with accuracy and dedication to rebuild a troubled period in the history of the banking system to the west of Olt. The documentary basis of the book is valuable, the author managing to brink an important contribution concerning the banking history in the period 1880-1948. It is of great interest for the Romanian historiography and comes to enrich the suite of studies
and books devoted to the knowledge of the history of national economy.
The work is structured in four chapters – Repere istorice privind organizarea sistemului bancar in Romania si evoluNia lui pana la naNionalizare (Historical marks concerning the organization of the banking system in Romania and its evolution to the nationalization); Oltenia bancara intre anii 1880-1918 (Oltenia banking between 1880-1918); Organizarea si consolidarea bancilor urbane din Oltenia intr-un sistem economic financiar naNional (The organization and consolidation of urban banks from Oltenia in a national economic and financial system); Rolul cooperaNiei de credit si de consum (1880-1944) (The role of credit and consumer cooperatives (1880-1944)) – to which it is added an introductory study, the conclusions and the bibliography. In the first chapter, the author has tried, and succeeded the chronological reconstruction of the projects that preceded the establishment of the National Bank of Romania, since 1832, and the most important moments in the organization and its evolution by the transformation of the State Bank, in 1948, when the institution was the subject of the nationalization and became the Romanian People’s Republic Bank. The main reasons, which required the establishment of National Bank, were both
the lack of the national coin and of a specialized credit institution, and the great interests, between 18-24%, collected by the usurers, money-changers and money-lenders (preteurs a gage), in the first half of the nineteenth century. The Romanian National Bank was founded in 1880, as a mixed bank, by the Belgian model, and cumulated in its existence two functions: of emission bank and commercial bank.
The second chapter was dedicated to the development of the banking system in Oltenia, in the period of 1880-1918. It started with the establishment of the National Bank branch in Craiova, founded on March 1, 1881, then spread to other counties in the region: Turnu Severin (1890), Caracal (1896), Tg. Jiu (1899) and Rm. Valcea (1901). Subsequently, the evolution has been spectacular, leading to the fact that, before the outbreak of World War, in Oltenia to be established 23 local commercial banks, 8 branches with headquarters in Bucharest and over 400 popular urban and rural banks, with an activity, for the most part, to the agrarian economy. The author has given a special attention to the Commerce Bank from Craiova, founded in December 1897, to the initiative of C. Neamtu, as a company of credit and economy. The interest face to this bank was determined by the important role played in the conducting financial transactions in Oltenia. In the third chapter, the focus was on banking and credit developments in Oltenia, after 1918, the economic crisis (1929-1933) and the subsequent development by private banks liquidation, following the nationalization of the Romania National Bank. To the National Conference of the Romanian Communist Party in October 1945, have been taken a series of measures to rebuild the economy; among these measures we mention: liquidation of speculation, fair tax, removing tax evasion, balancing the budget with ordinary means, using credit for productive purposes, liquidation of inflation, etc.
Together with the entry of private banks in liquidation, credit relations between the National Bank of Romania and business have changed fundamentally, the operations of loans being made directly by the National Bank units, scattered throughout the country.
A particular concern expressed Ms. Georgeta Gheonea for the credit and consumer cooperatives, discussed in the last chapter of the book. Besides commercial
banks, they have helped, with the tools they had, to cover the capital needs of the population.
An undeniable merit in setting up the credit cooperatives had Spiru Haret, which received the support of Dr. Istrati, I.G. Duca, Fotin Enescu, Emil Costinescu, Tache Protopopescu. Until 1918, under the law for organizing the cooperative were established in Oltenia, the following federal: Michael the Brave in Craiova, Federal popular banks in the county, Federal Dacia Caracal, Federal Cozia in Rm. Valcea and Federal Mehedintul in Turnu Severin.
The evolution of the popular banks declined in the First World War because of the transformation of the cooperative credit institutions into limited liability companies.
Reorganized after the war, they reach the peak year in 1930, when cooperatives in Oltenia recorded the highest number of banks so far (27 popular urban banks). The years of economic crisis have seriously affected their activity. They were forced to merge or were liquidated. After 1944, the cooperative movement from Romania was integrated into a system of directed economy, the state controlling it totally. In the work Istoria bancilor urbane din Oltenia (1880-1948) ( The history of urban banks from Oltenia (1880-1948)), the author approaches un ample and complex field, the research of banking and credit system from the region above-mentioned being only to the beginning. However, the book is a valuable contribution that deserves to occupy a suitable place in the contemporary historiography.
Narcisa Maria Mitu

Claude-Gilbert Dubois, Recits et mythes de fondation dans l’imaginaire culturel occidental, Pessac, PUB, 2009, 385p.
Dans le prolongement de l’ouvrage Mythologies de l’Occident. Les bases religieuses de la culture occidentale (Paris, Ellipses, 2007), cette etude sur les recits et les mythes de fondation dans l’imaginaire occidental constitue une incursion analytique a quelques aspects essentiels de l’imaginaire occidental: mythologies fondatrices dans le paganisme antique, bases historiques et modelisations symboliques dans le christianisme, elaboration de mythodologies identitaires de peuples. Selon la taxinomie de Claude-Gilbert Dubois sur les mythes en fonction de leur signification, il y trois types: les mythes d’origine ou de fondation; les myhes d’individuation ou identitaires et les mythes de finalite ou eschatologiques. Les mythes de fondation ont comme but „l’explication de la denomination d’un lieu, de la formation, de l’evolution historique et des principes qui regissent la vie d’une communaute; par la, ils sont partie integrante de mythes identitaires, et constituent la part du mythique infuse dans le discours epique; ils se caracterisent par l’action d’un heros, generalement eponyme, dotee d’une mission fixee par Dieu ou le destin, qui la realise en un territoire, matrice d’une histoire de la communaute» (cf. Claude-Gilbert Dubois, «Les modes de classification des mythes”; dans Joel Thomas, Introduction aux methodologies de l’Imaginaire, Paris, Ellipses,
1998, p.34).
Le chapitre propedeutique de l’ouvrage s’arrete sur l’appareil conceptuel des recits mythiques de fondation: principes, schemes et modeles. Les mythes fondateurs des nations repose, selon Claude-Gilbert Dubois, sur le mode de triangulation oedipian: il s’agit de trois actants: la mere, le principe materiel, le pere, le principe formel et le fils, l’incarnation des voeux parentaux. L’illustration de ce schema est evidente au niveau de deux myhes de fondation de la civilisation occidentale: le mythe du peuple hebreu „qui deviedra Israel, par la revelation et la promesse faite a Abraham et par l’injonction
donnee a Moise» et le mythe fondateur de Rome, “par le destin reserve a Enee, puis par l’action de reconquete et de formalisation politique et sociale propre a Romulus” (p.14), mythe reiteree dans une autre variante visant la “fondation d’Athenes, par les aventures redoublees, a dix generations de distance, de Cecrops et de Thesee”. A partir de ces deux mythes fondateurs de la culture occidentale, Claude-Gilbert Dubois offre une lecture parrallele assez incitante, accentuant “quelques invariants parmi les multiples variations liees a l’histoire, a la geographie et a la culture des peuples chez lesquels ils ont ete
elabores”. Ainsi, y-a-t-il six invariants: le premier visant “une lecture de l’histoire du peuple en fonction d’un projet preetabli et d’origine  transcendante, qu’il soit directement inspire par le Dieu unique de la Bible, ou par la loi immuable d’un destin”; le second visant “le choix, pour l’execution de cette volonte, d’un homme d’elite, depasse par le dessein qui lui est confie, et qui n’arrive pas a realiser jusqu’a son terme le programme
impose”; le troisieme visant “le deroulement en deux temps separes, et par deux hommes differents, mais lies entre eux par filiation biologique ou dynastique, de la realisation du programme”; le quatrieme visant “l’institution d’un ordre politique et social”; le cinquieme visant “les bases d’une histoire” et enfin le sixieme souligne que “cette construction litteraire, faite avec une distance de plusieurs siecles par rapport aux faits racontes, sert a justifier un etat de fait situe dans le present” (pp.24-25).
Dans l’imaginaire collectif, les mythes de fondation qui ont constitue “l’histoire reinventee des principales nations occidentals”, sont les engrammes identitaires qui faconnent le profil de chaque espace. Le but de ces mythes est “de faire epouser une ideologie (de justification genealogique, de politique nationale ou de nature religieuse), de susciter une adhesion ou de renforcer un attachement au groupe dont on fait partie, en lui donnant des assises et en lui magnifiant le passe par incantation poetique et magique” (p.30). Ce sont des mythes qui agissent dans un ordre mythtologique, faisant entrer les
faits, les evenements dans un logos, puis faisant entrer celui-ci dans la forme litteraire de l’epos, du recit epique, et enfin en doublant l’epos par le mythos, le depositaire de la memoire collective traduit par le reseau des symboles criptes.
La premiere partie de l’ouvrage est consacre aux mythologies fondatrices dans le paganisme antique. C’est ici que Claude-Gilbert Dubois propose des analyses raffinees sur l’archetype de l’heros civilisateur (Herakles – Hercule: aux origines du principe d’humanite; de la performance a la perfection). Outre son caractere epique, le mythe d’Herakles qui refait la trajectoire exemplaire du heros, est l’essor de la civilisation contre la barbarie et le chaos. Le Professeur Claude-Gilbert Dubois propose aussi des sequences analytiques significatives sur les etapes de fondation de l’au-dela dans l’antiquite greco-latine, en y insistant sur l’aspect des voyages vers l’au-dela: du pays des morts odysseen aux inferi virgiliens. L’auteur offre quelques hypotheses a cette problematique de l’au-dela dans la perspective de la dissociation entre identite et alterite, par la mise en evidence de ses representations, un veritable “temoignage de mentalite, de l’organisation d’une societe percue a travers son ordre symbolique” (p.109). La deuxieme partie de l’ouvrage dediee aux bases historiques et aux modelisations symboliques dans le christianisme est assez incitante par la thematique abordee: Saint Pierre: pierre de fondement ou pierre d’achoppement ou bien le modele de David dans l’elaboration de la sensibilite religieuse du protestantisme. Claude-Gilbert Dubois reconnait plusieurs aspects de l’Eglise romaine visant sa structure formelle: le legalisme, l’organisation, mais il s’interroge aussi sur la question de la
primaute romaine, en y invoquant, par exemple, le patriarche Photius qui rejette les arguments theologiques de l’Eglise de Rome. Car l’auteur n’aborde pas dans les questions strictement dogmatiques, doctrinaires qui separent le Catholicisme et l’Orthodoxie, on s’arrete justement au probleme de la primaute romaine. L’exegese catholique considere le passage de Matthieu XVI, 18 sur la fondation de l’Eglise dans la personne de l’Apotre Pierre comme etant l’expression d’un principe fondamental pour l’ordre ecclesial. Et aucune exegese serieuse ne peut annuler ce verset ou Christ se refere explicitement au futur de la communaute qu’il va fonder. Quand meme, le probleme exegetique que ce passage pose ne se reduit seulement a la question si l’Eglise fonde sur
la foi de Pierre, selon l’ancienne et l’unanime tradition patristique. Mais, selon les critiques catholiques, le probleme central represente plutot la question de l’eventuelle succession de Pierre, car, dans la perspective de la tradition du christianisme (occidental et oriental), on ne peut parler de l’Eglise sans ce que ce terme implique une permanence dans l’histoire.
Pour le protestantisme, “David n’est pas seulement l’objet essentiel dans la relation historique des evenements qui precedent et predisent l’arrivee du Christ, il est aussi l’auteur des Psaumes qui chantent la gloire de Dieu; il est la voix humaine qui fait mieux resonner le nom de l’Eternel” (p.197). Il y aussi des prolongements politiques du mythe de David; enfin il s’agit du royaume de David comme prefiguration de la Jerusalem celeste. Ce modele a ete recupere par les mouvements millenaristes qui ont fait du royaume de David une anticipation du royaume de Dieu en ce monde. Les resurgences modernes du mythe davidien sont decelees par Claude-Gilbert Dubois au niveau de la dimension protestante americaine qui fait ressusciter l’utopie millenariste.
Si la troisieme partie de l’ouvrage est consacree a l’elaboration de mythologies identitaires de peuples: l’auteur discute sur la naissance et l’evolution du mythe gaulois a partir de son archetype jusqu’au stereotype de nos ancetres, les Gaulois, ainsi que sur l’histoire de la Florence, sur la these independantiste des aramei au XVIe siecle, la derniere partie de l’ouvrage s’attarde sur les processus fondateurs d’images litteraires: des signes au symboles. C’est ici que l’auteur offre une interpretation exemplaire au symbole de la rose, dans les paradigmes de la fondation d’une lignee de noblesse
litteraire: la rose en tant que femme, la rose entre dans le temps, la rose entre dans la religion, la rose en tous etats, roses des vents. En litterature, “ ’histoire de la rose a pour fondement un produit ancien, bien reel, importe comme beaucoup d’autres, d’Orient; de la Perse a la Grece, la fleur des jardins de Saadi devient attribut de beaute dans l’Aurore d’Homere, par transfert metaphorique; elle sert d’embleme pour contribuer a la constitution d’un signe de reconnaissance: associee a la croix pour la Societe des Rosecroix, et tenue par le poing, pour logo du Parti Socialiste “ (p.274). En elargissant son
champ d’applications litteraires, lorsqu’elle passe de la valeur emblematique et allegorique a un emploi symbolique, la rose rassemble les attributs de la feminite.
La derniere sequence de cette partie est dediee aux deux images fondatrices de pouvoir et de savoir. Claude-Gilbert Dubois propose une incursion synthetique a la symbolique du soleil et de la lumiere en y insistant sur quelques aspects essentiels: fonction de la lumiere dans la religion des Hebreux, lumiere et soleil dans le paganisme greco-latin, le traitement chretien de l’heritage, soleil des poetes etc. La lumiere, associee a la connaissance est percue en opposition avec l’obscurite, associee a l’ignorance, dans le cadre des structures anthropologiques de l’Imaginaire, diurne et nocturne. La recherche de toutes les formes derivees de la nuit “ s’est efforcee de faire la lumiere dans les tenebres “. Du dialogue incessant entre “ les deux modes de
propagation de la lumiere, la lumiere solarisee ou la lumiere uniformement materialisee “ ou bien “ de la confrontation permanente entre le jour et la nuit, il ressort que ce reseau signifiant de symboles imbriques n’est pas pres de se defaire. Pour l’homme qui se sent plonge dans la nuit, la lumiere est porteuse d’esperance dans le domaine du savoir comme dans celui de l’ordonnance du pouvoir. Elle est la figure du desir de promotion dans l’ordre du savoir ou du pouvoir. Dans les regimes places sous l’embleme du soleil, elle est deja investie de pouvoir et de savoir “ (pp.337-338).
L’etude proposee par Claude-Gilbert Du bois sur les recits et les mythes de fondation dans la culture occidentale est une autre contribution substantielle a la recherche permanente de l’Imaginaire, a ses outils essentiels en vue de mieux saisir la profondeur de l’anthropologie symbolique. Ses hypotheses de travail, ses analyses novatrices, son raffinement methodologique sont des qualites indeniables qui soutiennent l’edifice de cet ouvrage incitant.
Constantin Mihai

JOURNAL REVIEW
Association des Amis de Gaston Bachelard, Bachelard et la musique, Bulletin, No.11/2009, 157p.
Le Bulletin no.11 de l’Association des Amis de Gaston Bachelard dirige par l’infatigable chercheur Jean Libis, nous propose comme sujet de reflexion le rapport entre Bachelard et la musique, un complexe thematique inedit et en quelque sorte audacieux vu les dimensions epistemologiques et creatives bachelardiennes. “Que Bachelard ait ete – tout comme sa fille Suzanne – un melomane averti, c’est ce que nous rappellent deux temoignages capitaux: ceux de Jean-Claude Pariente associe a son epouse Francine, et celui de Alexis Galperine” (Jean Libis, Presentation, p.5).
Le dossier thematique sur Bachelard et la musique gravite autour de plusieurs perspectives plurielles qui temoignent une fois de plus la completude de l’oeuvre du savant, une creation qui continue a fasciner. Marie Pierre-Lassus “ nous montre precisement comment, dans le corps meme des textes bachelardiens, font irruption tout un vocabulaire, une inspiration, un souffle proprement musicaux “ (pp.5-6). S’appuyant sur la phenomenologie poetique de Bachelard, Marie Pierre-Lassus demontre l’existence d’une phenomenologie de l’ecoute, fondee sur le sens de l’ouie, et non sur la vue, comme dans la tradition philosophique depuis Platon. La these de l’auteur vise le fait que l’univers bachelardien est un univers musical et actif dans lequel la vie doit vouloir la pensee. En depit d’une absence des travaux sur Bachelard et la musique – il faut mentionner quand meme les etudes sur la musicalite de l’ecriture bachelardienne – Marie
Pierre Lassus propose une lecture sur Bachelard et la musique du ciel (du chant de l’alouette au phenix-musique), par le biais de deux hypotheses: l’alouette ou l’activite facile et heureuse; l’ecriture ou le vol des oiseaux. Marie Pierre-Lassus repose dans sa demarche sur l’idee que “ l’ecriture bachelardienne ne passe pas tant par le langage que par le langage et le silence qui la constitue “ (p.10), idee illustree par la praxis de Sergiu Celibidache, dans une possible approche phenomenologique de la musique. Il y a aussi des aspects discutables dans la theorie de Marie Pierre-Lassus, tout comme la similitude
entre la phenomenologie poetique des elements chez Bachelard et une virtuelle phenomenologie des sons imperceptibles ou bien des elements musicaux au niveau
aperceptif, dans la mesure ou la theorie pythagoricienne de la musique des spheres est une propedeutique a une ontologie. Et pourtant, en forcant la demonstration de Marie Pierre-Lassus dont le complexe thematique ne peut etre fixe dans une methode rigoureuse, on peut admettre “ la these phenomenologique de l’ecoute bachelardienne selon laquelle ce n’est pas dans le monde que l’energie se deploie en nous, dans cette activite propre que nous avons la charge de faire vivre, et qui determine tout notre rapport au monde. Pour Bachelard, l’experience du son, dans la poesie comme dans la musique, se presentait avant tout comme une experience communicative de vie, transmise au lecteur par une activite susceptible de devenir un art lorsque, entre le poeme et son interpretation, nait un dialogue d’etre a etre, issu d’une profondeur inconnue “ (pp.32-33). Selon l’exemple de Nietzsche qui placait la musique sous le
signe du Phenix, pourquoi ne peut-on considerer l’aventure creative bachelardienne sous la marque de la musique, les proportions gardees – ce n’est pas la reiteration de l’adagio de Verlaine? C’est plutot une supposition, la certitude se dissipant dans les epektasis de Gregoire de Palamas, avec la diffusion des energies, dans notre cas avec les profusions des images bachelardiennes.
La reconstitution des variantes temporelles et des invariantes metaphysiques chez Bachelard est realisee par Eric Emery, musicien lui-meme, et specialiste de la philosophie du temps musical. A partir de l’intuitionnisme de Bergson, de sa philosophie sur l’intuition de l’instant sur la dialectique de la duree, Eric Emery argumente la theorie de la regularite et de la liberte; tout comme dans la musique, ce n’est pas la mesure qui fait reference, mais le rythme, la veritable metaphore de la philosophie de la duree (pp.45-46). L’etude de Michel Guiomar nous montre un Bachelard fascine par les forges de Richard Wagner, une etude visant quelques perspectives methodologiques sur cette symbolique qui semble etre marquee par une ambivalence des images. Ce Bulletin inclut aussi deux etudes substantielles, un de Jean-Jacques Wunenburger sur la pedagogie bachelardienne, et une autre de Julien Lamy sur la psychanalyse de la  connaissance. Dans le sillage de ses recherches sur la philosophie de l’Imaginaire, Jean-Jacques Wunenburger nous offre une interpretation incitante sur la
paideia (education et formation) de Bachelard. “ Les analyses bachelardiennes de la dialectique du concept et de l’image, loin de cautionner l’organisation dominante de la formation scolaire, servent en fait de point d’ancrages a des indications subversives, a des propositions revolutionnaires sur l’ecole “ (p.88). Eduquer l’homme a imaginer – et on peut ajouter a raisonner – c’est une etape essentielle de sa philosophie, en depit du fait que Bachelard ne s’est pas propose de faire des reformes pedagogiques. Et pourtant, Jean-Jacques Wunenburger decouvre en Bachelard un possible modele pedagogique, place sous le signe de l’humanite bifrons – la realisation de l’equilibre entre mythos et logos, entre la raison et l’imagination. Le seul amendement vise la piritualisation de cette humanite qui est en train de se dechristianiser, avec des consequences terribles pour son profil ontologique. A son tour, la psychanalyse de la connaissance proposee par Julien Lamy, en investissant deux champs d’application – epistemologique et pedagogique – se manifeste comme exercice absolument indispensable pour la culture scientifique. “ Dans l’horizon du surrationalisme et du nouvel esprit scientifique se dessine ainsi un ideal regulateur pour un nouvel esprit pedagogique, une pedagogie de l’ouverture, une education inventive dont Bachelard pose encore plus explicitement les
jalons avec La Philosophie du non “ (p.122).
Ce Bulletin inclut aussi une rubrique de documents signee par Gerard Vassails (avec sa chronique scientifique), d’images et de documents photographiques, ainsi qu’une utile rubrique de recensions et des informations. Dans ce numero, le Bulletin accorde une place importante au Cahier No.10 de l’Universite de Bourgogne, consacre a l’influence de Bachelard sur certains philosophes et sociologues contemporains. Il y a aussi des renseignements sur des colloques organises sur la problematique de Bachelard.
En somme, c’est un numero fecond et incitant du Bulletin qui essaie de continuer les recherches sur Gaston Bachelard, offrant de perspectives multiples sur sa personnalite et sur son oeuvre.
Constantin Mihai

Association des Amis de Gaston Bachelard, Images revees, images realisees. Bachelard et les arts plastiques, Bulletin, No.12/2010, 156p.
Ce numero du Bulletin de l’Association des Amis de Gaston Bachelard est consacre a la relation de Gaston Bachelard avec les arts plastiques, un theme moins
connu en depit du fait que le philosophe a publie de nombreux textes concernant des oeuvres artistiques, qui temoignent d’un interet constant pour les images plastiques.
Bachelard “ y evoque les artistes dont la main dynamisee par l’imagination materielle eveille la matiere, ceux qu’il nomme des poetes de main “ (p.7).
Le premier volet de ce recueil dedie au peintre sollicite par les elements rassemble des etudes composites dont les approches litteraires et philosophiques mettent en evidence la connaturalite entre l’imagination artistique et la dynamique des elements (l’eau, l’air, la terre et le feu). Michele Pichon nous propose un texte sur naturalisme abstrait et reverie des elements a partir justement d’un corpus de textes bachelardiens sur l’imagination artistique, textes
rassembles posterieurement dans le volume Le droit de rever. La these de l’auteur repose sur la presupposition que “ les images picturales comme celles des poetes peuvent trouver leur source dans les creations de l’imagination materielle; mais la fonction de l’imagination materielle dans le processus createur et la place qu’occupe ce type d’images dans une oeuvre different profondement selon les styles consideres “ (p.10). En fait, l’auteur s’interroge s’il est vraiment possible d’analyser la pratique picturale de certains peintres abstraits comme l’expression d’une sollicitation de l’imagination materielle par la phenomenologie des elements. En ce cas, elle essaie d’inscrire leurs oeuvres dans le paradigme de l’abstraction naturaliste, que ces peintres
reconnaissent ou non dans la nature une source d’inspiration. La question vise la signification de cette demarche dans le mecanisme de comprehension et de la connaissance de l’art abstrait.
L’hypothese de travail de Michele Pichon reside dans le fait que “ la demarche picturale ou l’imagination formelle serait entierement subordonnee a l’imagination materielle… Il en resulterait une oeuvre contenant exclusivement des formes en germe dans l’element, internes a celui-ci et engendrees par sa dynamique “ (p.19). L’approche bachelardienne de l’abstraction naturaliste permet a Michele Pichon de saisir trois types de demarches: premierement, le
naturalisme abstrait elementariste se distingue du paysagisme abstrait, dans les termes de Michel Ragon. En ce cas, la faculte abstractisante et la sensation. Deuxiemement, le naturalisme abstrait elementariste se differencie d’une autre approche qui “ consiste a abstraire des details d’un paysage ou d’une chose “. Et enfin, la troisieme demarche propose l’esthetique du fragment dont la faculte abstractisante est la memoire affective.
Le texte de Jean Libis s’attarde sur l’aspect des Nympheas de Claude Monet, offrant une lecture incitante du peintre au niveau metaphysique, esthetique et pourquoi pas, ethique. Les nympheas de Monet appartiennent a l’esthetique de l’apparence. En echange, chez Gaston Bachelard “ le vouloir-vivre schopenhauerien est tout aussi bien un vouloir-imaginer qu’une volonte esthetique generalisee “ (p.42). Maryvonne Perrot nous offre un texte sur Bachelard et Dali. Metamorphose et demiurgie de l’image, un texte qui remet en question la problematique de l’onirisme de la metamorphose et de la dynamique de l’espace – temps en tant que principes regulateurs de l’image, le metaxu (mediateur) de la metaphysique. Le texte de Claude-Henri Rocquet – l’auteur de l’admirable ouvrage d’entretiens avec Mircea Eliade, L’epreuve du labyrinthe – nous propose une nouvelle hermeneutique sur Bachelard (Bachelard. Une lecon de lumiere),
s’axant sur la consubstantialite entre la picturalite et la materialite de l’Imaginaire bachelardien dans les paradigmes de la tradition spirituelle. Ce sont les lecons de la charite, de la grace de l’amour, de l’espoir dans la perspective de la lumiere. L’oeuvre bachelardienne devient “ un miroir fidele de toute beaute “, le philosophe essayant de “ reconcilier, comme en un arc-en-ciel, la charite et la beaute “ (p.75). C’est la charite en tant que don de soi, don de sa propre vie, pour l’amour de Dieu et pour l’amour des hommes. Par l’univers artistique des grands peintres, le rationalisme bachelardien tend a
se metamorphoser en une metaphysique de la lumiere.
Le dernier texte d’Aurosa Alison sur Les eaux de l’imagination materielle dans l’Ile des morts d’Arnold Bocklin nous propose une analyse, par etapes successives, du rapport entre imagination materielle et representation picturale, en particulier entre l’imagination materielle et ce tableau du peintre suisse. “ Les elements de la mort, des eaux profondes, de la transcendance entendus par Bachelard comme des elements et des parties d’un systeme philosophique, sont repris par Bocklin avec un naturel extreme et modeles en matiere immobile et imaginante “ (p.92).
Le second volet du Bulletin inclut un extrait d’un texte de Bachelard consacre a l’oeuvre de son ami Flocon, ainsi quelques temoignages de plasticiens sur Bachelard. Jean-Philippe Pierron presente le land art: le paysage est un poeme. Le syntagme land art “ evoque davantage l’idee d’un onirisme du paysage plus qu’elle ne convoque la definition d’un mouvement artistique ou d’une technique artistique “ (p.99). Ce concept se prete a une analyse developpee dans le sens de la poetique bachelardienne des elements. Le land art construit une veritable phenomenologie materielle de la perception des espaces naturels,
irreductibles a des donnees objectives. Analysant les paradigmes: terre, territoire et volontes; le land art, la marche et la quete de l’espace, la nature de l’art, Jean Philippe-Pierron trouve la signification de l’hermeneutique de soi de l’art: la nature est un poeme, avec un langage specifique ou “ la pedagogie des images fait le plus defaut a une culture de la rationalite instrumentale qui tend a geometriser le monde “ (p.112). La metaphysique de l’art repose sur
l’experience de la perception que cultive le land art, les images materielles, dans le sens de la phenomenologie de Merleau-Ponty, de la recherche des experiences enigmatiques, porteuses de significations en touffe. Jean-Pierre Treille ecrit sur Bachelard et l’art contemporain, en vue de saisir les traits saillants du medium – la difference specifique entre un artiste plasticien et un artiste classique; autrement dit, ce n’est pas la matiere signifiee de l’oeuvre, mais c’est son materiau signifiant –, tandis que Julia Chauchard offre un instantane d’une fidele bachelardienne, s’appuyant sur l’hypostase poetique de Rilke: la poesie en tant que devenir de l’etre, la conscience de son trouble, qui nous fait penser a la theorie heideggerienne de l’habitation poetique de l’etre. Le troisieme volet, intitule l’image cinematographique, presente une etude incitante de Michel Serceau sur Bachelard et le cinema: la question de l’imagination sensorielle. Dans le sillage de la definition d’Edgar Morin sur le cinema en tant qu’” art paradoxal, ne d’une trahison dans la mesure ou il denie la fonction de reproduction du reel “ (p.131), Michel Serceau essaie d’argumenter la valeur de l’image dans le cinema classique, un analogon du pretendu langage litteraire. L’image cinematographique est apte a transgresser le naturalisme, s’ancrant justement au niveau de la representation
iconique, mais pas symbolique. Le cinema peut donner corps a l’imagination materielle. Ce numero inclut aussi un texte du romancier Michel Tournier sur l’oeuvre de Bachelard, un temoignage pour la dimension de sa phenomenologie poetique, ainsi qu’une petite sequence litteraire de Pascale Charbonneau, L’art de tailler, selon la tradition de cette revue.
Ce numero du Bulletin est un apport a la recherche de cette relation moins connue entre Bachelard et les arts plastiques, ouvrant la voie pour d’autres etudes substantielles en ce domaine.
Constantin Mihai

Cultural & Social History. The Journal of the Social History Society, volume 7, issue 2, June 2010, 284 p.
Edite par la Societe britannique d’Histoire Sociale (Social History Society), la revue a gagne depuis sept annees un prestige scientifique, reconnu meme par sa recente inclusion dans le celebre ISI Arts and Humanities Citation Index. Le numero present garde la meme haute tenue, les sujets y inclus temoignant des nouvelles perspectives et debats qui animent l’historiographie britannique et pas seulement en matiere d’histoire sociale et culturelle. Professeurs et chercheurs de universites anglaises, irlandaises et nord-americaines signent des contributions traitant de la sorcellerie dans un microcosmos comme Isle de Mans (Robert Hutton), l’importance de la geographie locale dans l’interpretation de evenements majeurs telle les Guerres civiles de la premiere
moitie du XVIIe siecle (Daniel Mc Cannel), la relation entre la mythologie du bon sauvage et l’heritage culturelle du XVIIIe siecle (Kate Fulgar), les strategies narratives et editoriales des intellectuels russes tels Chekov et Tolstoi vers la fin du XIXe siecle, les politiques “ preferentielles “ concernant l’assurances-chomages en etroite liaison avec les modeles masculins de la societe britannique de l’apres Grande Guerre (Marjorie
Levine-Clark), l’importance d’une histoire de la music comprise notamment comme une histoire culturelle du son (David Maw).
Une serie de neuf compte rendus permettent au lecteur d’entrer au contact avec des ouvrages concernant l’evaluation du statut de l’histoire culturelle aux Etats-Unis (The Cultural Turn in U.S History: Past, Present and Future, edited by James W. Cook, Lawrence B. Glickman and Michael O’Malley, Chicago, University of Chicago Press), la dimension sensorielle de la de la vie quotidienne dans l’espace urbaine europeen XVIe-XXe siecles (The City and the Senses: Urban Culture since 1500. Edited by Alexander Cowan and Jill Steward, Ashgate, 2007 et Hubbub: Filth, Noise and Stench in England 1660-1770. By Emily Cockayne, London, Yale University Press, 2007), les ” politiques ” d’assistance sociale pour les pauvres en Allemagne (Poor Relief and Welfare in Germany from the Reformation to World War I by Larry Frohman, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008), la representation de la
prostitution et les politiques de controle du phenomene dans la societe irlandaise de XIXe et XXe siecles (Prostitution and Irish Society 1800-1940 by Maria Luddy, Cambridge University Press, 2007 et Ireland’s Magdalen Laundries and the Nation’s Arhitecture of Containment by James M. Smith, Manchester University Press, 2008), les dimensions sociales et culturelles du vagabondage (Vicarious Vagrants: Incognito Social Explores and the Homeless in England 1860-1910, edited by Mark Freeman and Gilian Nelson, Lambertsville, N.J, The True Bill Press, 2008).
On remarque la finesse des interpretations, attentives a la diynamique des rapports modele-reception, norme-pratique, national-local, circulation-isolation. En s’attaquant au sujet de la sorcellerie dans une petit isle (The Changing Faces of Manx Withcraftes), Ronald Hutton propose une vision differente par rapport au recherche du professeur James Sharpe. La richesse du materiel, notamment pour l’epoque victorienne, lui permet de parler de la circulation et de la continuite de l’ “ heritage “ des traditions decouvertes dans la periode premoderne ou de mieux comprendre le processus de “ l’invention de la tradition “ d’Eric Hobsbawm et Terence Ranger. Le traitement de la sorcellerie devient notamment sujet pour une reconstruction de la memoire, liee etroitement a la maniere dont ceux qui fait enregistrer diverses histoire sur le sujet s’en rapportent-ils eux-memes, soit-ils illuministes ou ethnographes de la fin du XIXe siecle.
Tous sont impliques plus ou moins conscients dans un processus de reinvention, enregistrement et transmission d’un heritage culturel, d’autant plsu interessant qu’il s’agit d’un microcosme. Comme l’auteur attire l’attention en guise de conclusion, les historiens doivent porter toute attention a l’evolution des attitudes pour une periode comprise entre la fin des proces criminels de sorcellerie et fin du XXe siecle). De meme, Marjorie Levinie-Clark souligne le changement de l’hierarchie sociale des modele apres la Grande Guerre, le soldat veteran etant depasse par les modeles plus domestiques. Sa
recherche sur le sujet des politiques d’assistences sociales (The Politics of Preference. Masculinity, marital status and unemployment relief in post-first World War Britain) met en lumiere de tels aspects.
Nicolae Mihai

SCIENTIFIC CHRONICLES
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS IMAGE AND POLITICAL POWER: THE EUROPEAN FESTIVE CULTURE BETWEEN REPRESENTATION AND INSTRUMENTALISATION
Craiova, 21st-23rd of October 2010
On the 21st-23rd of October 2010, the “C.S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor” Institute for Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities (Cultural History Group) organized, in collaboration with the Group PROTEO of the University of Burgos (Spain) and the Brukenthal Museum, the international congress Image and Political Power: the European Festive Culture between Representation and Instrumentalisation. Coordinated by Oana Andreia Sambrian (Academia Romana, Institutul de
Cercetari Socio-Umane “C.S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, Craiova) and Maria Luisa Lobato (Universidad de Burgos) and cofinanced by the Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Program and the Spanish Embassy from Bucharest, the congress aimed to integrate the Romanian scientific community in the much wider area of international research, as well as to engage the media and civil society knowledge of the key developments of Hispanism.
Through communication sessions, plenary lectures and round tables, the organizers focused on the promotion of the most valuable results of Hispanism concerning the chosen items. The plenary sessions, assigned to personalities in the field, such as acad. Carmen Sanz (Universidad Complutense, Madrid) or Maria Luisa Lobato (Universidad de Burgos), informed the public regarding the newest professional achievements and most relevant knowledge about the topic proposed for discussion.
The first plenary session was assigned to Carmen Sanz, academician of the Spanish History Royal Academy, whose excellent study, entitled Political service and Culture in Court: Sigismund Bathory, the construction of his idealized image, highlightened the figure of the 16th century Transylvanian prince Sigismund Bathory, using a wide range of sources.
The first session of communications held on the 21st of October, Political propaganda and literature, gathered two studies concerning the propagandistic
construction of the image: Jessica Castro Rivas (Universidad de Chile/Universidad de Navarra), The oath of prince Baltasar: exaltation and political propaganda in La banda y la flor by Pedro Calderon de la Barca and Fabrice Quero (Universite Bordeaux III), Popular feast and the cult celebration of the person: leitmotifs of the public image of the archbishop of Toledo, Juan Martinez Siliceo, in four avvisi (1545-1556).
The construction of image during the public feast was the main theme of the second session of communications, illustrated by Lidwine Linares (Universite Toulouse II), Saint Teresa or apostle Santiago? The feast of the patron, resonances of a political and religious conflict and Maria Martos Perez (Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha), Image and power in the cult epics of Golden Age: Sanson Nazareno by Antonio Enriquez Gomez.
The congress continued with the second plenary session, held by Oana Andreia Sambrian (Academia Romana, Institutul de Cercetari Socio-Umane “C.S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, Craiova), who debated on The feast of the other: the festive representation of Christians, Moors and Indians in the Spanish Baroque theatre. The first day concluded with Portraits of power in Premodern Romania, a section which included the communications of Teodor Sambrian (Universitatea din Craiova), L´image postbyzantine dans l´exercice du pouvoir des voivodes roumains (XVIeme-XVIIeme siecles), Anca Parmena Olimid (Universitatea din Craiova), European Personalist Model of State-Church Relations (Political and Legal Fundaments in the 16th-17th Centuries) and Ileana Cioarec (Academia Romana, Institutul de Cercetari Socio-Umane “C.S. Nicolaescu-Plopsor”, Craiova), Unite de la politique anti-ottomane des Roumains au milieu du XVIIeme siecle: Matei Basarab, Vasile Lupu et George Rakoczi.
On the second day of the congress, Francisco Saez Raposo (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid) opened the series of debates with a discourse on the comedy of Agustin Moreto, Moreto at the palace, the palace at Moreto, where he approached the historic comedies of one of the important Spanish dramatists of the 17th century.
The following session of communications, Matter as image of power, grouped two studies about how power can be conceived and utilized through coats of arms and taste: Constantin Ittu (Muzeul Brukenthal), Coats of Arms as Images of Power on the 16th–17th Century Transylvanian Maps and Marin Toma (Universitatea din Craiova), Hunger for Power: Gastronomy and Government in 16th Century Europe.
The day concluded with a section dedicated to New Spain, Allegory and power in the Baroque of New Spain. The three communications, presented by Sofia Brito Ocampo (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Representations of feasts and ideology in the Novohispanic Baroque, Ramon Manuel Perez Martinez (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi), Political iconography of the sea in Neptuno alegorico by Sor Juana and Laurette Godinas, Mihaela Liana Mihailescu (UNAM), Las tristes ayes del aguila mexicana or a poetical and homiletically pyrotechnics of late Baroque in New Spain showed an unitary image of the New world although the 17th century.
The last day of the congress started with the plenary session of Jesus Gonzalez Maestro (Universidad de Vigo), The Golden Age theatre in front of the idea and concept of power in the political society, followed by the session of communications Public power and literature at Lope and Calderon. This last section illustrated the results of the studies of two young Romanian researchers: Sorina Dora Simion (Universitatea din Bucuresti), The rhetoric of discourse in the play El prodigioso principe transilvano and Andreea Iliescu, whose research interests concentrated on Calderon de la Barca, the paradigm of Baroque Aesthetics.
The closure plenary session was assigned to Maria Luisa Lobato (Universidad de Burgos), who build her discourse around „Cante Himeneo/ pues calla Mercurio”:
theatrical feasts celebrating the arrival of Mariana de Austria at Madrid (1649).
Image and power have been to date the subject of international congresses, such as Power and Authority in Spanish Golden Age, 2-3 November 2009, organized by the University of Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3, in collaboration with the Oxford Research Group and GRISO (University of Navarra). A similar conference was held in Lerma on 26-29 September 2005, Festive Drama and Aristocratic Culture in Don Quixote’s Epoch, coordinated by Maria Luisa Lobato (Universidad de Burgos) and Bernardo Garcia (Universidad Complutense, Madrid). Consequently, our event came on the already internationally drawn line of how to promote the relationship between image and power, through appropriate congresses and conferences and their subsequent proceedings.
Oana Andreia Sambrian